In This Issue:
Featured Story

Dental Benefits of Xylitol

The Xylitol difference for teeth...

Tooth decay happens when bacteria in your mouth consume the sugars we eat. When you eat food containing ordinary sugar (sucrose), it gives bacteria on your teeth energy, allowing them to multiply and start making acids that can eat away the enamel on the teeth. This "acid attack" causes tooth decay and cavities to begin to form.

Xylitol is a natural sweetener derived from the fibrous parts of plants. It does not break down like sugar and can help keep a neutral pH level in the mouth. Xylitol also prevents bacteria from sticking to the teeth. This is how it protects the teeth from tooth decay. With Xylitol, the acid attack that would otherwise last for over half an hour is stopped. Most people are not aware of this benefit because such a claim makes xylitol into a drug, crossing a boundary not allowed by the Food and Drug Administration.
Less bacteria, less acid – healthier teeth!

Because the bacteria in the mouth that are causing cavities are unable to digest xylitol, their growth is greatly reduced. The number of acid-producing bacteria may fall as much as 90%. No acid is formed because the pH of saliva and plaque does not fall. After taking xylitol, the bacteria do not stick well on the surface of the teeth and as a result, the amount of plaque decreases.

Research has shown that the use of xylitol also helps repair damage to the enamel. Saliva in itself protects the mouth and teeth. Stimulated saliva in particular contains all the components needed to repair early cavities. If sugar is only taken a couple of times a day, the saliva can do the job alone. But most people take sugar so often that the mouth's own defensive tools are not enough.

Saliva that has xylitol is more alkaline than saliva stimulated by other sugar products. After taking xylitol products, the concentration of basic amino acids and ammonia in saliva and plaque may rise, and plaque pH rises as well. When pH is above 7, calcium and phosphate salts in saliva start to move into those parts of enamel that are weak. Therefore, soft, calcium-deficient enamel sites begin to harden again.

While reversing a rising trend of negative health and high health-care costs won't happen overnight, improving your own health can begin sooner than later, and xylitol can have a significant influence on that trend.


8805 Columbia 100 Pkwy, Suite 104
Columbia, MD 21045











RETAIL PRICE: $160     OUR PRICE: $110






JULY 1 - 31, 2013

GUM® Soft-Picks® are great to use in addition to regular flossing.   They are effective and convenient to use while on-the-go.

  • Clincially proven plaque removal between teeth
  • Safe for dental implants, bridges, crowns, and orthodontics
  • Gentle on gums and more comfortable than plastic picks
  • 76 soft, rubber bristles massage and stimulate gums
  • Wire-free, tapered design dislodges food
  • Easy to use for people of all ages










RETAIL PRICE: $160          OUR PRICE: $110




Dear Friends and Patients, 

The holidays are the perfect time for us to send you a heartfelt thank you for the privilege of serving your dental needs all year long. We wish you and your families a joyous holiday season and good health, happiness and prosperity in the coming New Year.


Thank you again,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Michael Ramsey and Staff

Dear Friends and Patients, 

The holidays are the perfect time for us to send you a heartfelt thank you for the privilege of serving your dental needs all year long. We wish you and your families a joyous holiday season and good health, happiness and prosperity in the coming New Year.


Thank you again,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Michael Ramsey and Staff




RETAIL PRICE: $160        OUR PRICE: $110







RETAIL PRICE: $160      OUR PRICE: $110






JUNE 23, 2014 - JULY 25, 2014  

GUM® ButlerWeave® Dental Floss by Sunstar Butler



JULY 28, 2014 - AUGUST 22, 2014








RETAIL PRICE: $160     OUR PRICE: $110






 ♥♥♥ Comings and Goings  ♥♥♥


Your Friends at Columbia 100 Dental


What to Do With Pumpkins When Halloween Is Over


Give the Gift of Oral Health this Holiday Season!

Looking for that perfect last minute gift this holiday season?  Young or old, the gift of oral health is the gift that keeps on giving.  It doesn't have to be expensive either.

For children who are starting to make a dental routine part of their lives, toothbrushes, toothpaste and kid-sized floss have come a long way and make great gift fillers.  There are battery operated toothbrushes that come bearing favorite characters and colors.

And because the high consumption of sweets is inevitable during the holiday season, you may want to consider the following stocking stuffers:

*  A toothbrush and fluoride toothpaste to remove plaque left by holiday treats will help prevent tooth decay and gum disease.

*  Dental floss will help remove food from those hard-to-reach places.  Waxed floss may be easier to slide through tight teeth while unwaxed floss is better for greater tooth contact.  For a special treat you may want to give flavored floss.

*  Many studies have shown that chewing sugar-free gum after meals and snacks can help reduce the acid level and can stimulate the flow of saliva which cleanses the mouth.

*  Travel size mouth rinses are great gifts when used in conjunction with good hygiene habits.

And please keep in mind that the Oral B Pro 5000 Smart Series Electric Toothbrush is ON SALE at our office through December.  After the $20 rebate, you final cost is $70.00.


Fluoride works!  How about a fluoride treatment at your next dental visit?  Fluoride helps strengthen teeth through a process called remineralization which means it bonds to weakened areas of tooth enamel and disrupts acid production, stopping early cavities in their tracks.  If your insurance does not cover fluoride, our fee is $25.00.



The Xylitol difference for teeth...

Tooth decay happens when bacteria in your mouth consume the sugars we eat. When you eat food containing ordinary sugar (sucrose), it gives bacteria on your teeth energy, allowing them to multiply and start making acids that can eat away the enamel on the teeth. This "acid attack" causes tooth decay and cavities to begin to form.

Read the entire Article...

DO NOT USE The Key Elements of Proper Flossing

man flossing

Four Key Elements Of Proper Flossing

Gum disease begins at the gum line and between teeth. Daily flossing is an important part of your oral health care routine to help remove the plaque from these areas where a toothbrush doesn’t completely reach. But to truly reap the benefits, you need to use proper flossing technique.

The American Dental Hygienists’ Association explains the key elements of proper flossing technique in four simple steps:

  1. Wind: Wind 18 inches of floss around middle fingers of each hand. Pinch floss between thumbs and index fingers, leaving a one- to two-inch length in between. Use thumbs to direct floss between upper teeth.
  2. Guide: Keep a one- to two-inch length of floss taut between fingers. Use index fingers to guide floss between contacts of the lower teeth.
  3. Glide: Gently guide floss between the teeth by using a zig-zag motion. DO NOT SNAP FLOSS BETWEEN YOUR TEETH. Contour floss around the side of the tooth.
  4. Slide: Slide floss up and down against the tooth surface and under the gum line. Floss each tooth thoroughly with a clean section of floss.

This technique applies to any type of floss: waxed, unwaxed, spongy floss or dental tape. It doesn’t matter whether you start with your upper or lower teeth, or whether you start in the front or the back. Just make sure that you floss all your teeth, including the back side of the very last tooth on the left, right, top and bottom of your mouth. And don’t forget to floss under the gum line and along the sides of teeth that border any spaces where teeth are missing -- food particles can become trapped in these spaces, too.

Using a Flosser

If you use a hand-held flosser, the flossing technique is similar. Hold the flosser handle firmly and point the flossing tip at an angle facing the area you want to floss first (either top teeth or bottom teeth). Guide the floss gently between two teeth, and be sure to avoid snapping or popping the floss. Use the same zigzag motion that you would use with standard floss. Bend the floss around each tooth and slide it under the gum line and along each tooth surface.

Flossing Around Dental Work

If you wear braces or other dental appliances, proper flossing technique is especially important to avoid getting floss caught on wires or brackets. You can use special orthodontic floss, such as Oral-B Super Floss®, which has a stiff end that can be easily threaded under the main wire (also called the arch wire) on your braces. Or you can purchase a floss threader, which is a flexible device with a pick on one end and a loop on the other. To use a floss threader, place an 18-inch piece of the floss of your choice through the loop. Then insert the pointed end of the flosser under the main wire and pull through so the floss is under the main wire. Once you have the floss in place, follow the same principles of proper flossing technique that you would use with standard floss.

Being Gentle

Poor flossing technique can result in complications, and it's important to be thorough yet gentle.  You can always ask your dentist or dental hygienist to show you how if you are uncertain.

The Key Elements Of Proper Flossing

man flossing

Four Key Elements Of Proper Flossing

Gum disease begins at the gum line and between teeth. Daily flossing is an important part of your oral health care routine to help remove the plaque from these areas where a toothbrush doesn’t completely reach. But to truly reap the benefits, you need to use proper flossing technique.


Read the entire Article...

Occlusal Guard – What Is It And When Should I Wear One?


Dentist holding an occlusal guard

What Is An Occlusal Guard?

An occlusal guard is a horseshoe shaped piece of plastic which is worn over the teeth to protect them against damage caused by clenching or grinding. It works by creating a physical barrier between your upper and lower teeth so that you bite against the plastic rather than wearing down your teeth. Most people are unaware that they grind (also called bruxism) or clench their teeth as it usually happens when they are sleeping. It is often a person’s partner who first notices that they are grinding their teeth. People tend to go through phases of grinding their teeth, such as during times of stress. It is during these times that you may need to wear an occlusal night guard to prevent doing permanent damage to your teeth.

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Give Yourself the Gift of Good Dental Health this Holiday Season






'Tis the season for giving, but remember to give yourself the most important gift of all this holiday season: a healthy smile! Maintaining good oral hygiene during the holiday season is more important than ever.

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Tips for Dealing with Dental Emergencies


Dental emergencies may be categorized as toothaches, injuries or broken teeth.

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A Beautiful Smile is Precious and Priceless


Did you know that the shape, shade, length and spacing of your teeth could significantly affect your smile?

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Eating Right for Your Dental Health


What we eat is significant to our overall health. General guidelines should include balance and moderation and should involve choices from the five major food groups:

(1) Dairy [milk, yogurt, cheese]
(2) Meat [poultry, fish]
(3) Fruits
(4) Vegetables
(5) Whole grain [breads, cereals]

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The length of time it takes for a tooth to develop a cavity depends on a number of things. Teeth are protected by a white outer coating called enamel and saliva is constantly being produced in our mouths to help wash away left over food particles and flush out bacteria. However, when we don’t brush our teeth thoroughly, a soft, gooey substance called plaque builds up wherever it can grow unimpeded. If it is not removed, this plaque eventually begins to absorb calcium and phosphorus from the saliva and it then mineralizes and hardens into calculus. New plaque builds upon the hardened calculus, creating a new layer to be calcified and eventually, cavities.

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Digital X-rays: Safer and Improved Diagnosis

In 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen, a German scientist, discovered the medical use of x-rays.  A picture of his wife's hand was the first ever photograph of a human body part using x-rays. In dentistry, radiographs [x-rays] became extremely important to the diagnosis of tooth decay [caries], periodontal [gum] disease and other oral conditions. They have also been an invaluable adjunct for dental treatment providing necessary information during procedures such as crown and bridge restorations, root canal treatment and implants. 

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What does my dental insurance plan cover?


One of the most frequent questions about dental insurance is, “What does my insurance plan cover?” It is difficult to answer this question with specifics, because every dental insurance plan offers a slightly different kind of coverage. Luckily, there are a few basic guidelines that apply to most dental plans.

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Dental Implants

 Before Dental Implant After Dental Implant Before (left) and after a dental implant


Did you know that dental implants are frequently the best treatment option for replacing missing teeth? Rather than resting on the gum line like removable dentures, or using adjacent teeth as anchors like fixed bridges, dental implants are long-term replacements that your oral and maxillofacial surgeon surgically places in the jawbone.

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Oral Health: The Mouth-Body Connection

Years ago, a physician who suspected heart disease would probably not refer the patient to a gum specialist. The same went for diabetes, pregnancy, or just about any other medical condition. Times have changed. The past 5 to 10 years have seen ballooning interest in possible links between mouth health and body health.

"Physicians are taking a more holistic approach to their patients’ overall health," says Sally Cram, DDS, PC, consumer advisor for the American Dental Association (ADA). And for good reason. In one recent study, people with serious gum disease were 40% more likely to have a chronic condition on top of it.

Read the entire Article...



Mouthrinses are used for a variety of reasons: to freshen breath, to help prevent or control tooth decay, to reduce plaque (a thin film of bacteria that forms on teeth), to prevent or reduce gingivitis (an early stage of gum disease), to reduce the speed that tartar (hardened plaque) forms on the teeth, or to produce a combination of these effects. Most mouthrinses are available without a prescription.

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8 Amusing Dental Facts

drinking water and losing weight

Here are eight amusing facts that will make you smile and improve your health as well.

1) People who drink 3 or more glasses of soda each day have 62% more tooth decay, fillings and tooth loss than others. Put down the pop and sports drinks and pick up some nice fresh water instead.

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What is a Crown?

A crown is a restoration that covers, or "caps," a tooth to restore it to its normal shape and size, strengthening and improving the appearance of a tooth. Crowns are necessary when a tooth is generally broken down and fillings won't solve the problem.

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History of the Dental Handpiece

   Dental Handpiece


Since the inception of civilization, there has been evidence of dentistry. In 2006, scientists announced that they unearthed the earliest evidence of drilled human teeth in vivo, which are estimated to be more than 9,000 years old. From a graveyard in Pakistan, 9 adults with 11 drilled molars were excavated, and the early dental tools utilized were made of sharpened stone or jade. Due to the depth and shape of the holes, it is surmised that they would have been turned either by hand or possibly with bow string.

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The History of Dental Advances

Smiling Caveman Character With Club  Illustration Isolated on white Stock Vector - 22957574

Many of the most common dental tools were used as early as the Stone Age. Thankfully, technology and continuing education have made going to the dentist a much more pleasant and painless experience. Here is a look at the history of dentistry's most common tools, and how they came to be vital components of our oral health care needs.

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You Don't Need a PhD to Balance Your pH

 Alkalife Alkaline Booster



The human body is largely made up of water equaling 50-60% of our total body weight. The water is significant in that it provides the medium for transferring nutrients, oxygen and biochemicals from place to place, thus having a profound effect on body chemistry, health and/or disease.

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A Bite Out of History - Dentures



George Washington wore dentures because he had lost one tooth after another to extraction. He suffered from toothaches all his adult life, and his famous quick temper may have been the result of this pain.

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New Robotic Patient Helps Train Future Dentists


Robots that look like human beings are always something that people get fascinated by. If the robot is remotely human then there is usually a line forming in order to get to see it. What happens when the robots look even more human than usual?

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A Brief History of Dental Floss


Dental floss is considered a key element in proper oral hygiene. However, according to the ADA, only about 12 percent of Americans floss daily. The concept of flossing isn’t a new idea at all and it’s surprising that patients don’t take it more seriously. In fact, discoveries made by researchers have suggested that cleaning between the teeth was practiced as early as the Prehistoric period.

Read the entire Article...

Adult Fluoride Treatment

Fluoride varnish being applied

What is Fluoride Varnish?

A treatment that hardens the teeth and makes them more resistant to decay.


Who benefits from Fluoride Varnish?

Fluoride treatments are routinely used after cleaning for children, but many adults benefit from fluoride treatment as much as, or even more than children.

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Tooth Enamel: What Helps, What Hurts

tooth enamel

The outer surface of teeth, called enamel, should last a lifetime. "Enamel is the hardest substance in the body," says dentist Leslie Seldin, DDS, a spokeswoman for the American Dental Association.  Some wear and tear of tooth enamel is normal. But Seldin says there's plenty you can do to keep your enamel strong.

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Not Just for the Heart, Red Wine Shows Promise as a Cavity Fighter


For anyone searching for another reason to enjoy a glass of red wine with dinner, here's a good one: A new study has found that red wine, as well as grape seed extract, could potentially help prevent cavities.

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A Brief History of Toothpaste

toothpaste on a toothbrush

Egyptians are believed to have started using a paste to clean their teeth around 5000BC, before toothbrushes were invented. Ancient Greeks and Romans are known to have used toothpastes, and people in China and India first used toothpaste around 500BC.

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The Weird Way Red Wine Fights Cavities

Wine Is Served In Stemware Because The Temperature At Which Wine Is  

The claim: Need yet another reason to indulge in a glass of red wine with dinner? Vino may may help prevent cavities, finds a new study in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry.

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Could this vaccine end tooth decay?

Researchers at the Forsyth Institute in Boston are researching a vaccine that targets mutans streptococci, the bacterium that causes tooth decay.


When the bacteria break down food, they produce lactic acid which wears away tooth enamel, producing cavities.

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Composite Restorations - White Fillings & Bondings

fractured tooth repair


Our practice utilizes composite restorations (bonded resin ceramics) as our usual restoration for all teeth. It is our belief that these are exceptional restorations. Since it is our philosophy to provide the best possible treatment available, we place composite fillings, whenever indicated, in all teeth to be restored with a direct restoration.

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Mayan Dentistry



 Mayan dentist

In this age of body-piercing and other body adornments it might be interesting to look back at what the Mayans did to their teeth.

The Mayans were a peaceful people with a highly developed culture who inhabited the Yucatan Peninsula as well as present-day Guatemala and Honduras. The nation's history began about 2500 B.C., but the culture flourished from about 300 A.D. to about 900 A.D. They were accomplished smelters and forgers of gold, silver and bronze in addition to being highly skilled in cutting, polishing and engraving precious and semiprecious stones.


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History of Toothbrushes



Tooth brushing tools date back to 3500-3000 BC when the Babylonians and the Egyptians made a brush by fraying the end of a twig. Tombs of the ancient Egyptians have been found containing toothsticks alongside their owners. Around 1600 BC, the Chinese developed "chewing sticks" which were made from aromatic tree twigs to freshen breath.

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Dentist called to help repair sea turtle's shell


Florida Keys dentist Fred Troxel, left, examines repairs he made to the fractured shell of Elena, an endangered green sea turtle, at the Keys-based Turtle Hospital Thursday, Sept. 12, 2013, in Marathon, Fla.  At right is Bette Zirkelbach, the hospital's manager. On Wednesday, Sept. 11, Troxel utilized a denture repair adhesive to bond two metal orthopedic plates across a 10-inch split on the turtle’s carapace. (Andy Newman/Florida Keys News Bureau) 

One lucky sea turtle received some help from an unusual source.

A Florida Keys turtle hospital called in a local dentist to help create a solution that would mend the turtle's broken shell.

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Tooth Plaque and How To Prevent It

 Important Information about Tooth Plaque 

Essentially everyone has this to one degree or another. A colorless sticky film that continuously forms on and between tooth surfaces above the gums, along the gum line, and below the gum line on the roots of the teeth.This film consists of bacteria, epithelial cells, proteins and other substances. It can make your teeth feel "fuzzy" to the tongue and is most noticeable when you have not brushed your teeth recently.

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Spooktacular Smiles

The fall season has arrived! The dropping temperatures and shorter days are undeniable signs the holiday season is right around the corner. Halloween marks the starting point of this annual season of sweets. The next few months will likely include an increase in the consumption of sweets and other treats, and the risk of dental cavities.

Read the entire Article...

8 Thanksgiving Foods for your Dental Health

Happy Thanksgiving from your friends at Columbia 100 Dental!  We hope you and your family have a festive and relaxing holiday!

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An Elephant Goes to the Dentist


What might sound like the opening of a joke, “An elephant goes to the dentist,” was serious business at the San Diego Zoo. Jewel, an Asian elephant, had a lower molar that wasn’t wearing properly and was hindering her eating.

So, to remedy this, and to get her back to eating properly, the San Diego Zoo brought a dentist to her. Well, actually, an entire team was brought in.

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7 Benefits of Using an Electric Toothbrush

how to use an electric toothbrush

Maintaining good oral hygiene should be an important part of everyone’s daily routine. Without proper cleaning at least twice daily and without thorough cleanings at least every 6 months by a dental hygienist, teeth can suffer from a number of issues. They can develop plaque, tartar, cavities, loss of enamel, periodontal disease, and other problems that, if untreated, can lead to irreversible decay. Periodontal disease, also called gum disease or gingivitis, is especially dangerous to oral health, as it causes infection and inflammation of the gums. This inflammation can loosen the teeth and eventually lead to their loss. While regular toothbrushes and toothpaste work well, electric toothbrushes offer a number of additional benefits. This guide explains the many advantages of choosing an electric toothbrush over a regular one.

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Five Dental Tips to Keep Your Teeth Merry During the Holidays

The holidays are some of the few times in the year when we can feast, indulge and not feel guilty about it.  Although eating lots of great food comes along with the festivities, it's important to remember to take care of our teeth.

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Chinese Zoo Makes a Special Toothbrush for Hippos

A keeper brushes a hippo's teeth at the Shanghai Zoo

A Chinese zoo has built a special four foot-long toothbrush to clean the teeth of its hippopotamuses after using a broom for years.

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Cecil gets a Dental Checkup

dental students work on gorilla named Cecil

Louisville, Kentucky - Cecil, a 7-year old, has to be carried to the dentist.  In his case it took three zookeepers and some anesthesia to bring the 130-pound Western lowland gorilla in for a checkup at the Louisville Zoo.

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Important Dental Facts

When it comes to oral health, there are some well-established myths that have become cemented as facts in the public mind. The problem with these misconceptions is that they sometimes lead individuals away from what is needed for a cavity-free, white smile. So to facilitate the goal of education, below are some things that everyone should know about their smiles.

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Dr. Eskinazi is very proud to announce the  birth of her first grandchild and future dental patient! 

Eden Camille Greenblatt

Born on November 12, 2014 at 4:51 a.m.

5 lbs. 15 oz. 19.75 inches

Mazel Tov, Dr. Eskinazi!

A little baby girl to love beyond measure.

To bring you and your family much joy and much pleasure!

Alligators Can Grow New Teeth, So Why Not Humans?


The key to keeping a sparkling set of pearly whites might lie with patients that dentists really won't want to treat -- alligators.  An alligator can regenerate a lost tooth up to 50 times!  In what must come as good news for hockey players, researchers at the University of Southern California are studying alligators' teeth to see if one day humans could automatically regenerate a lost tooth.

Read the entire Article...

February is National Children's Dental Health Month

Gallup New Mexico, Gallup NM

Because developing good habits at an early age and scheduling regular dental checkups helps children get a good start on a lifetime of healthy teeth and gums, the American Dental Association sponsors National Children's Dental Health Month each February.

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Pandas Need Dentists Too!

 San Diego Zoo Panda Goes to Dentist

Why do pandas need dentists?  Pandas actually work their teeth pretty hard.  This is because they have a special diet -- bamboo.  In fact, all pandas really eat is bamboo, whose tough, fibrous consistency requires both eating a large volume in order to gain the necessay nutrients, and a lot of chewing -- on average up to 12 hours per day!

The panda in our story is Bai Yun, a giant panda living at the San Diego Zoo, who chipped her lower canine tooth during one of her epic bamboo meals.

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Myths About Root Canals

Treatment Options Image 1

There are many misconceptions surrounding root canal (endodontic) treatment.  The American Association of Endodontists wants you to have accurate information.  As always, when considering any medical procedure, you should get as much information as you can about all of your options.  Your dentist or endodontist can answer any questions you may have. 

Here are 3 common myths:

Myth #1 - Root canal treatment is painful.

Myth #2 - Root canal treatment causes illness.

Myth #3 - An extraction is a better option than a root canal.

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A Fond Farewell

It is with heavy hearts that we bid farewell to one of our very special Columbia 100 Dental family members.  Kathy, dental hygienist extraodinaire, and her husband, Joe, are moving to Prescott, Arizona this summer.  Kathy's last day with us will be Thursday, May 7th.

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Welcome Back!


We are very pleased to welcome back another very special member of our Columbia 100 Dental family.

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Beavers, What's Your Secret?

A new study has examined why beavers don't get tooth decay even though they don't brush their teeth or drink fluoridated water.  Beavers are known for their super-strong teeth and scientists have discovered that their chompers have decay-fighting iron built into the chemical structure.

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Is Livionex the Next Generation of Oral Care?


Silicon Valley has brought us computer hardware and software that has changed our lives, social media companies that help us to connect, and wearable gadgetry to improve our workouts, if not help us keep time, and now, a new innovative product for dental care: a luxury gel toothpaste called Livionex.

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The Importance of Fluoride

Fluoride varnish being applied

Fluoride is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and water.  Every day minerals are added to and lost from a tooth's enamel layer through two processes, demineralization and remineralization.  Minerals are lost (demineralization) from a tooth's enamel layer when acids -- formed from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth -- attack the enamel.  Minerals such as fluoride, calcium and phosphate are redeposited (remineralization) to the enamel layer from the foods and water consumed.  Too much demineralization without enough remineralization to repair the enamel layer leads to tooth decay.

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American Pharoah Needs Dental Care Too!

Did you know that horses need routine dental care just like people?  Horses' teeth are hypsodontic in nature, which means that they have a limited growth period, but prolonged eruption throughout the life of the animal.  The majority of a horse's teeth are buried within the maxilla or mandible and lengthen through "eruption" to compensate for wear.  However, with domestication -- and the unnaural eating patterns and diet that accompany it -- the horse's teeth often grow faster than they wear.

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T. Rex's Secret Weapon

 T-rex teeth

With the summer release of the film Jurassic World, we couldn't resist taking a closer look at the teeth and jaws of the most fearsome dinosaur of all.

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Research is Indicating that Sports Drinks Could be Bad for Your Teeth

Sports drinks are often considered a post-workout solution, both for quenching one's thirst and revitalizing one's system.  Yet most people don't consider the impact this energy-boosting quick fix can have on your teeth.

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Our Newest Patient

New patients are always welcome.  In fact, some are quite endearing.  We pride ourselves on helping every patient feel at ease, especially those who may be a little hesitant at first.

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The Importance of Mouth Guards for Sports

With the new school year approaching in a few short weeks and kids getting geared up for team sports, we wanted to discuss the importance of mouth guards.

A mouth guard is a soft plastic or laminate device used in sports to prevent oral injuries to the teeth, mouth, cheeks, tongue and jaw.  The American Dental Association projects that one third of all dental injuries are sports related.  The used of a mouth guard can prevent more than 200,000 oral injuries to the mouth each year.

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Introducing Dr. Jared M. Lawson

Introducing Dr. Jared M. Lawson


We are very pleased to announce that Dr. Jared Lawson has joined our dental practice.  Dr. Lawson is a Summa Cum Laude graduate in Biomedical Science from Marshall University in Huntington, West Virginia and a Magna Cum Laude graduate from West Virginia University Dental School in Morgantown, West Virginia.

He has experience in providing dental care in a private office setting as well as volunteer clinics for the underserved.  He recently traveled to Guatamala as part of a global outreach initiative, providing fluoride treatments to children in local villages.

Dr. Lawson enjoys playing guitar and is an avid car enthusiast.

He is kind and caring and is looking forward to treating our patients' dental needs.


"If nothing ever changed, there would be no butterflies."  Author Unknown

It is with heavy hearts that we must inform you that David Vincitore is retiring from our dental practice effective Wednesday, December 9th.

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Halloween is right around the corner, which for most children means bags of free candy and a chance to build a stockpile of sweets for the winter.  Not surprisingly, Halloween can also present parents with a variety of health and safety challenges.

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Dental Hygiene was Actually Good During the Middle Ages

People in the Middle Ages considered healthy, white teeth a sign of beauty and wrote of sweet smelling breath as a desirable attribute.  So, not surprisingly, we have extensive evidence that people liked to keep their teeth clean and a large amount of evidence of the existence of toothpastes, powders and treatments, as well as mouthwashes and treatments for halitosis.

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No Brushing, No Fluoridation, No Tooth Decay - Beavers, What's Your Secret?

A new study has examined why beavers don't get tooth decay even though they don't brush their teeth or drink fluoridated water.

It isn't simply a shorter lifespan.  If a human does not brush their teeth for 20 years, they are likely to develop problems.  Instead it seems to be the pigmented enamel of beavers, which contains iron, makes their teeth both harder and more resistant to acid than regular enamel, including that treated with fluoride.

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Wishing you and your family a very warm and festive celebration!


Dr. Eskinazi's granddaughter, Eden, and future Columbia 100 Dental patient celebrated her first birthday on 11/12/15.  We love those dimples!

Give the Gift of Oral Health this Holiday Season


Looking for that perfect last minute gift this holiday season?  Young or old, the gift of oral health is the gift that keeps on giving.  It doesn't have to be expensive either.

Read the entire Article...

Presidential Smiles

As we get ready to celebrate President's Day on February 15th, it is interesting to learn about the smiles of the nation's earliest leaders.  With more than 250 years of history, there are certainly some fascinating tales about three of our presidents.

George Washington:  As the first president of the United States, Washington had quite the rickety grin.  By middle age Washington had no teeth left.  However, he did wear several sets of dentures, which were made from materials such as seahorse ivory, hippopotamus ivory and lead.  Other pairs even used the teeth of pigs, elks, cows and humans which sounds like a breeding ground for malodorous anaerobic bacteria.  Oftentimes, these ill-fitting dentures distorted his lips, giving him a rather dour look in his portraits.  In the Charles Willson Peale portrait of 1776, Washington had a long scar along his left cheek that was the result of an incision to treat an abscessed tooth.  If you want to catch a glimpse of these old-school chompers, the University of Maryland Dental Museum in Baltimore has a set on display.

Thomas Jefferson:  Jefferson was on the opposite side of the coin, figuratively speaking.  The third president of the United States boasted a full natural smile for his entire life, although at age 65 a decayed tooth was believed to have led to a severe jaw infection.  In spite of this, when Jefferson was well into his older years, he wrote, "I have not yet lost a tooth to age."  He lived to age 83 with all of his teeth intact.

Abraham Lincoln:  Though renowned for his resolve and fearlessness of progress, Lincoln had terrible dental anxiety.  That's because in 1841 a dentist broke off part of Lincoln's jaw bone while pulling a tooth.  Worse yet, the president had no anesthesia.

"I am literally subsisting on savoury remembrances - that is, being unable to eat, I am living upon the remembrance of the delicious dishes of peaches and cream we used to have at your house," Lincoln wrote in a letter to Mary Speed dated September 27, 1841.

One score and one year later, Lincoln developed a severe tooth ache.  He consulted a dentist named G.S. Wolf who had an office by the White House.  As Wolf got ready to yank the tooth, Lincoln asked him to wait and reportedly took a bottle of chloroform from his pocket, inhaled it and sleepily gave the sign to begin.  All in all, Lincoln only visited the dentist four times in his life according to an article published in a 1975 issue of the Gettysberg Times.

As we celebrate President's Day we can be grateful for not only what these three great men gave this country, but also for how far dentistry has progressed since their times.

German researchers studying shark teeth have found at least two species that have fluorinated calcium phosphate - mineral fluoroapatite as a main component, one of the main ingredients in toothpaste, which partly explains why sharks don't ever get cavities.  The researchers looked at mako and tiger sharks and found, as they explain in their paper published in the Journal of Structural Biology, after very close examination, that the outer coating of the shark teeth contained one hundred percent fluoride.

To gain a better understanding of how sharks manage to keep their teeth in such pristine condition, the team looked at two species that eat in very different ways.  Mako sharks rip off flesh when feeding as opposed to tiger sharks who use their teeth to slice neatly through their meal.  Under close observation using regular and scanning microscopes, the team was able to determine the exact makeup of the ingredients of the shark's teeth.  Besides the hard crystal enamel structure that makes up the outside of the teeth, they found an inner organic dentin made of proteins which was more elastic, similar to that of human teeth.  They note also the well-known fact that sharks are able to replace teeth that are lost many times throughout their life cycle.  The result they say is a nearly perfect design, allowing sharks to rely on their teeth to keep them fed.

Teeth coated with fluoroapatite are known to be less water soluble than those coated with hydroxyapatite (the substance that humans and most other mammals have coating their teeth).  Therefore, teeth coated with fluoroapatite remain more stable in underwater environments and thus less prone to attacks by various bacteria which can lead to decay.

The researchers also conducted hardness tests, and found that despite the shark teeth being made of a naturally harder mineral, they were not harder than human teeth; this because the crystal structure of human teeth has a pattern arrangement more suited to hardness.  They noted that teeth in general tend to have such dual structures to keep them from shattering when encountering hard objects.

It's been more than 150 years since Dr. Greene Vardiman (G.V.) Black started to practice, and many of his ideas of cavity preparation remain largely unchanged.  While adhesive dentistry has changed some of Black's requirements for preparations, his principles are still the ones on which modern dental education is based.

Greene Vardiman Black's life was a picture of contrast.  As a child, Black thought he could learn more by spending time in the woods than in the classroom.  In adulthood, Black became an influential pioneer in the development and growth of formal dental education, as well as modern dentistry.

Born in 1836, the young Black considered formal education a waste of time.  He eventually entered the world of dentistry as a self-learner, with the help of his older brother, a practicing physician.  G.V. moved off the family farm at the age of 17 to live with his brother and learn about the body, ailments and treatments.

 At the age of 21, Black spent several months with a local dentist.  After learning everything he thought he could learn, he left to start a practice of his own in Winchester, Illinois in 1857, becoming the first dentist in Scott County.

While in private practice, Black continued to study fervently.  He used what he learned from his brother to study how disease affects the mouth.  He made observations on the influence of acids and alkaline upon teeth.  He even created the instruments used to perform these studies.  One of his many inventions was the foot-driven dental drill.

What he learned changed the face of modern dentistry.

In his first book, "The Formation of Poisons by Microorganisms" (1883), Black was the first to note that microorganisms were largely responsible for disease, including dental caries.  The Dental Cosmos published five of his articles in 1891 on "The Management of Enamel Margins," where the phrase "extension for prevention" was popularized in the treatment of cavities.  In 1896, after 13 years of study, he provided the first formula for a scientifically balanced amalgam for fillings.  In all, his work produced more than 1,300 scientific papers and addresses.

Numerous distinguished positions were bestowed upon Black because of his work.  He was trustee of the Missouri Dental College when it was chartered in 1866, and served on its faculty for 11 years, during which time the school awarded him an honorary DDS.  He was a six-year president of the Illinois State Board of Dental Examiners.  Following teaching stints at numerous colleges, Black was named dean of Northwestern University Dental School in 1897, where his portrait hung until the school closed in 2001.  A statue honoring him can be found in Chicago's Lincoln Park.

Black's career culminated in the publication of two groundbreaking books:  "Dental Anatomy" (1890) and the two-volume "Operational Dentistry" (1908).

On the old farm where he spent his boyhood, Dr. Black passed away on August 31, 1915.

Now, more than a century later, dental education is still shaped by G.V. Black, a man who grew from a child with no interest in formal education, to a man who fathered modern dentistry and the way dental students learn it.  His life exemplified his profound and often-quoted statement: "The professional man has no right to be other than a continuous student."


Lucy Hobbs Taylor, born Lucy Beaman Hobbs, became the first American woman graduate of dental school 150 years ago, in February 1866.  Born on March 14,1833 in Constable, New York in the heart of the Adirondack Lake region a few miles from the Canadian border, she was the seventh of ten children.

She studied at the Franklin Academy in neighboring Malone and graduated in 1849.  She quickly obtained a position as a schoolteacher in Michigan, one of the few jobs a woman could get at the time.

But Lucy always wanted to be a doctor and took every opportunity to read up on medical science.  She taught school for ten years, her interest in medicine only growing stronger.  In 1859 Hobbs relocated to Cincinnati, home of the Eclectic College of Medicine, the sole medical college that had accepted women.  She applied for admission only to be rejected because the school had reversed its admission policy and was no longer admitting women.

Undeterred, Hobbs found a professor from the Cincinnati medical school who was willing to tutor her, and she studied with him privately.  Recognizing her aptitude and the medical establishment's antipathy toward female students, he suggested she consider dentistry.  The dean of the Ohio College of Dental Surgery was willing to take Hobbs on as a private student, and he later helped her secure an apprenticeship with a graduate of the college.  After her apprenticeship, Hobbs applied to the Ohio school of dentistry, but despite her qualifications, she was refused admission again because of her gender.

At that point Hobbs decided to strike out on her own.  In the spring of 1861, the 28-year-old opened a dentistry practice without a diploma, as was common practice.  The following year she moved her practice to Bellevue, Iowa and then to McGregor, Iowa.  The locals referred to her as "the woman who pulls teeth."  In the summer of 1865, Hobbs was elected by her male colleagues to the Iowa State Dental Society, the first professional dental organization to accept women.  Acknowledging her as their peer, the Society members sent Hobbs as a delegate to the American Dental Association's convention in Chicago.

After treating patients for four years, and with the support and respect of the Iowa State Dental Society, Hobbs finally gained admission to the senior class at the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, the second dental school in the nation.  In February 1866 Hobbs became the first woman in the nation to earn the degree of Doctor of Dental Surgery.  She later wrote, "People were amazed when they learned that a young girl had so far forgotten her womanhood as to want to study dentistry."

Despite the dominance of male chauvinism in the profession, the general population seemed to clamor for a woman's touch.  The Cincinnati Dental Reporter reflected this attitude in an editorial that ran shortly after Hobbs's graduation.  It read, "Even now we almost imagine ourselves seated in what is usually termed the 'chair of torture' - dreaded now no more - by our side a beautiful lady, with sweet breath and glowing cheek, her delicate arm encircling our head, ...eyes, so tender in their gaze - they take away all dread, and in their sympathy even divide the pain itself."

Hobbs next moved to Chicago, where she met a Civil War veteran, James M. Taylor, who had been working as a railway maintenance laborer.  They married in April 1867, and she became Lucy Hobbs Taylor.  She convinced her husband to also enter dentistry.  The two then moved to Lawrence, Kansas where they ran a successful joint practice with a particular focus on women and children.

Following her husband's death in 1886, "Dr. Lucy," as she was known to her patients, largely retired from medicine, yet she continued to participate in social and political issues in the Republication Party, including the fight for women's suffrage.  She continued a limited practice of dentistry until suffering a fatal stroke on October 3, 1910 at age seventy-seven.

"I am a New Yorker by birth," wrote Dr. Lucy Hobbs Taylor.  "But I love my adopted country - the West.  To it belongs the credit of making it possible for women to be recognized in the dental profession on equal terms with men."  She gained the respect of her colleagues, her patients and countless women whose professional aspirations loomed within reach, thanks to her pioneering work.  Her obituary in a local newspaper remembered her as "one of the most striking figures of Lawrence [who] occupied a position of honor and ability, and for years she occupied a place high in the ranks of her profession.  Dr. Taylor was a great charitable worker and did much good in a quiet, unobtrusive manner."  Lucy Hobbs Taylor and her husband are buried in Lawrence's Oak Hill Cemetery.

By 1900 almost one thousand women had followed Lucy Hobbs Taylor into dentistry, an increase many attribute largely to her pioneering accomplishments.  According to Department of Labor statistics, in 1999 women accounted for less than 17 percent of all dentists.  Two years later an American Dental Association survey found that women comprised 37 percent of dental school graduates, and that number has grown since.

Beginning in 1983, the American Association of Women Dentists has honored outstanding women in the dental profession with the Lucy Hobbs Taylor Award, the most prestigious recognition the organization bestows, for contributing "to the advancement, enrichment, and betterment of the role of women in the field of dentistry through their achievement in civic, cultural, humanitarian and academic areas."


It doesn't matter if your glass is half-empty or half-full.  Drinking water is always good for your health.  Our bodies are made of 60% water and staying hydrated helps your system distribute healthy nutrients, gets rid of waste, gives your skin a healthy glow and keeps your muscles moving.  Sipping water is also one of the best things you can do for your teeth -- especially if it's fluoridated.  Read on to find out why water is always a winner for your dental health.

It Strengthens Your Teeth

Drinking water with fluoride (called "nature's cavity fighter") is one of the easiest and most beneficial things you can do to help prevent cavities.

A modern-day tale of two cities shows what a difference fluoride makes, especially in community water systems.  In 2011 the Canadian city of Calgary stopped adding fluoride to its water.  Curious about the impact, researchers compared Calgary second graders with kids in the same age group in Edmonton, a Canadian city that has had fluoridated water since 1967.  Their research, published in the February 2016 journal Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, found children in non-fluoridated Calgary had more tooth decay than children in the city with uninterrupted fluoridation.

It Keeps Your Mouth Clean

Drinking juice, soda or sports drinks may help you wash down your dinner, but they can leave unwanted sugar behind on your teeth.  The cavity-causing bacteria in your mouth love to eat sugar and produce acid that wears away enamel, which is the outer shell of your teeth.  Many of these drinks also have added acids (phosphoric, citrus or malic acid) to make them taste less sweet, but those acids can also eat away at your teeth.

Water, however, cleans your mouth with every sip.  It washes away leftover food and residue that cavity-causing bacteria are looking for.  It also dilutes the acids produced by the bacteria in your mouth.  You'll still need to brush twice a day for two minutes and clean between your teeth, but drinking water throughout the day will go a long way toward keeping your smile cavity-free.

It Fights Dry Mouth

Saliva is your mouth's first defense against tooth decay.  It washes away leftover food, helps you swallow with ease and keeps your teeth strong by washing them with calcium, phosphate and fluoride.

When your saliva supply runs low, dry mouth may put you at risk for tooth decay.  Drinking water can help cut your risk.

It's Calorie-Free

Sweetened drinks that are high in sugar and calories create a perfect storm that puts you at risk for cavities and other unhealthy consequences like weight gain.  In fact, studies have shown that drinking water can actually help you lose weight.  So the next time you need a drink, go guilt-free with water to take care of your body and your smile.

Neanderthals, the closest known extinct relatives to humans, probably had to pick annoying bits of food out of their teeth from time to time.  And now, scientists have evidence that these extinct cousins of modern humans may have done so with the help of prehistoric toothpicks.

Researchers found traces of wood trapped in fossilized plaque stuck to Neanderthal teeth.  The bits of bark likely came from toothpicks or possibly wooden tools used as a third hand during crafting, said the new study, published in the April issue of the journal Antiquity.

Led by Anita Radini, an archaeologist at the University of York in the United Kingdom, a group of scientists recently examined teeth found at El Sidron cave in Spain.  At this site, at least 13 Neanderthal skeletons have been found, the remains dating back 49,000 years.

The scientists said they were mostly after the fossilized plaque know as dental calculus.  It's the same stuff that a dental hygienist will scrape off a patient's teeth if they have not done a thorough job flossing and brushing.  The plaque can trap tiny food particles, bacteria and whatever else may enter your mouth.  After plaque hardens, it can survive even longer than bone.  That fact is good news for archaeologists.

The stubborn plaque that's stuck to very old teeth can be a useful capsule of material for reconstructing some mundane but important aspects of prehistoric life, such as what people ate and what their health was like.

In the latest study, the scientists found bits of nonedible and noncharred conifer wood tissue in the plaque from some of the El Sidron teeth.  The researchers said the most likely explanation for the finding is that these Neanderthals were putting toothpicks or wooden tools in their mouths.

Previous research has shown that Neanderthals knew how to make use of the trees around their campsites.  They made wooden spears, built fire pits and manufactured tar-like pitch from resin.

So the finding isn't all that surprising, especially considering the results of a few recent studies.  In 2013 another group of scientists reported in the journal PLOS ONE that they had found grooves on the in-between parts of quite unhealthy Neanderthal teeth, which led researchers to hypothesize that Neanderthals employed toothpicks not just to clean teeth and dislodge food particles, but also to help relieve pain and inflammation caused by gum disease.  Furthermore, last year scientists studying the skeletons from El Sidron found marks on the teeth that indicated these Neanderthals were performing tasks involving their teeth as tools, which as we humans know, is never a good idea!

Scientists in the UK have developed a new material that can be inserted into teeth to repair and regenerate dentin - the hard, bone-like tissue that makes up the bulk of all teeth.

Just like regular fillings, which are inserted into a tooth to block off spaces where bacteria could colonize, the new material is injected into the tooth and hardened with UV light.  Once inside the pulp of the tooth, it actually encourages stem cells to proliferate and grow into dentin.

"We have designed synthetic biomaterials that can be used similarly to dental fillings but can be placed in direct contact with pulp tissue to stimulate the native stem cell population for repair and regeneration of pulp tissue and the surrounding dentin," says lead researcher Adam Celiz, a therapeutic biomaterials researcher from the University of Nottingham.

The technique just won second prize in the materials category of the UK Royal Society of Chemistry's Emerging Technologies Competition 2016, and while there's not a whole lot of information available about how it actually works, it appears to be a new form of "pulp capping."

Pulp capping is a technique dentists use to try and stop dental pulp from dying.  Pulp is one of the four major components of teeth, along with enamel, dentin and cemetum.

The surface enamel is the hardest layer, and under that is the second hardest layer, dentin.  Dentin is important because it surrounds and connects to the pulp of the tooth, which is made up of living connective tissue and cells called odontoblasts, and found in the middle of your tooth.

The pulp is where your blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue are found, so you really don't want to mess that up.

Problems start when you get a cavity that eats away your enamel, dentin and cementum (a calcified substance covering the root of a tooth) and exposes the pulp.  If there isn't a protective pulp-capping substance put in the tooth fast enough (or if the procedure fails), you're looking at an expensive root canal treatment.

Right now pulp capping materials are usually made of materials such as calcium hydroxide or mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), and they don't do anything other than protect.  Unfortunately, around 10 to 15 percent of these fillings fail.

That's where the University of Nottingham's invention comes in.  Their new pulp capping material is designed to stop pulp capping failure by encouraging the growth of more natural dentin to protect it.

As Coby McDonald reports for Popular Science:

"In in vitro testing, the fillings stimulated the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells into dentin, the bony tissue that forms the bulk of the tooth under the white enamel.

The researchers believe that if used in a damaged tooth, those stem cells can repair the kind of damage that often comes from the installation of a filling.  In essence, the biomaterial filling would allow the tooth to heal itself."

As mentioned earlier, the team has not released a lot of infomation about their new material, and have yet to publish it in a peer-reviewed journal, so we'll have to be cautiously optimistic about it for now until we can see more information about exactly how it works, and how expensive it will be.

But if it can save a patient from having to get a root canal or even worse, having to lose the tooth altogether, this would be a very good thing!

Introducing Daseol "Da" Choi

We are very pleased to welcome back Da Choi to our practice!  Da was a Dental Assistant at our practice several years ago and some of you may remember her.  Before that she was a Dental Hygienist in Jin-Ju, Korea.

Da decided to go back to school at the University of Maryland Baltimore to pursue a Dental Hygiene degree in the U.S.  In June of this year she obtained her degree and license as a Registered Dental Hygienist (RDH).  She has now rejoined our team in her new capacity and she will be here on Tuesdays and Thursdays.  Da is licensed to administer nitrous oxide for our patients who need it and she is also licensed to administer local anesthetic injections for patients who need root planing and scaling (a deeper type of cleaning for periodontal patients).

Da loves all things related to cows and one of her hobbies is scouting for bovine collectibles.

Da is very gentle and caring and we are delighted to have her back as a member of our exceptional dental team!

Do you use an electric toothbrush?  If not, here is your golden opportunity to get the Oral B Electric Toothbrush at a fantastic price!  Read on to review the top 7 benefits.

1.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush keeps your teeth, gums and tongue cleaner and healthier than a manual toothbrush.

We've been taught to brush our teeth thoroughly ever since we were little.  Despite our best efforts, though, we're not brushing as thoroughly as we would like.  This is due to the fact that the bristles on manual toothbrushes cannot reach to remove all of the plaque and tartar built up between our teeth.

The Oral B Electric Toothbrush's rotating and pulsating brush head features bristles which can reach further thanks to the combination of motion and equal pressure from the brush itself.  Equal pressure is important -- far too many manual brushers do a good job on one side of their mouth (for example, a right-handed person often brushes the left side of their mouth more thoroughly) but struggle to keep the other side of their mouth as clean.  That's where the second benefit comes in ...

2.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush makes for longer, more thorough teeth brushing.

The Oral B Electric Toothbrush is preset for brushing equal time (30 seconds) for each quadrant of your mouth.  This ensures a better, longer brushing and a great, clean feeling.

Children are often some of the biggest beneficiaries of electric toothbrushes.  Many children brush but don't get all of the food buildup.  Children with braces are especially susceptible to this happening.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush will get to all of those hard to reach places that children miss with manual brushing.

3.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush does the work for you.

Since the Oral B Electric Toothbrush does most of the work, users do not have to put much effort into their tooth cleaning routine.  All they need to do is apply a pea size amount of toothpaste to the brush head, turn on the electric brush and move it over all the tooth surfaces, including the front and back of teeth and over the flat surfaces of molars.  Individuals who have problems with their hands or wrists may find that the Oral B Electric Toothbrush is the only way that they can conduct an effective oral hygiene routine on a regular basis.

4.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush is a great way to fight gingivitis (gum disease).

The Oral B Electric Toothbrush is an excellent tool in the fight against gingivitis.  Its design enables it to reach the areas of the teeth nearest the gums, as well as the crevices in between the teeth, which are havens for bacteria.  You're not just brushing longer and better, but you're brushing smarter too.

5.  Using the Oral B Electric Toothbrush can help you maintain fresher breath.

Bad breath, or halitosis, occurs when foul odors emanate from the mouth and are noticeable to other people.  Bad breath can be made worse when people eat foods like onions, dairy products, garlic or fish.  Sometimes, halitosis can be caused by the presence of bacteria or plaque in the hidden recesses of the mouth.  It is important to take full advantage of the Oral B Electric Toothbrush and its ability to reach back far into the mouth.  The top of the tongue, under the tongue and the back area of the mouth around the molars are sometimes tough to reach.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush allows for easy and efficient cleaning of those areas, creating both a cleaner mouth and fresher breath.

6.  The Oral B Electric Toothbrush can help with stain removal.

Consumption of drinks like coffee, tea and red wine can eventually cause discoloration and staining of the teeth.  The gentle scouring power of the Oral B Electric Toothbrush makes it easier for users to remove unwanted stains and whiten their smile.

7.  Proven Long-Term Results

Several studies have shown that if users employ electric toothbrushes as recommended, they will experience an 11 percent reduction in plaque and a 6 percent reduction of gingivitis when compared to users who brush regularly with manual toothbrushes.


1.  It reduces periodontal infection.  One of the primary benefits of the Water Flosser is that the pulsating action creates a compression/decompression phase that expels subgingival bacteria from the pocket.  Teeth with no instrumentation for six months or more that were treated with the Water Flosser had reductions in bacteria up to 6 mm.  When the Water Flosser was compared to both toothbrushing and mouth rinsing with 0.12% cholorhexidine, only water flossing reduced subgingival bacteria.  A paper by the American Academy of Periodontology notes that one of the greatest advantages of water flossing is that is "permits patients to participate in maintaining the bacterial reduction that was attained during root planing."

2.  It reduces inflammation.  Study after study, many of six months' duration, has shown that people who add the Water Flosser to daily self-care do better at reducing bleeding and gingivitis than people who don't use the Water Flosser.

3.  It helps people with diabetes.  People with diabetes tend to be at greater risk for periodontal disease and often have more severe gingival inflammation.  A study on people with diabetes found that those who used the Water Flosser for three months had a 44% better reduction in bleeding and a 41% better reduction in gingivitis over those who did not use the Water Flosser.

4.  It is safe and gentle around implants.  Maintenance of implants is critical to their long-term survival.  A three-month study comparing water flossing with 012.% cholorohexine rinsing found that those who used the Water Flosser had superior reductions in plaque (25% vs. 9%), bleeding (62% vs. 33%) and gingivitis (45% vs. 10%) over rinsing.

5.  It removes plaque.  A study at the University of Southern California Center for Biofilms found that a three-second application of water flossing at a medium pressure removed 99.9% of plaque biofilm from the treated area.  The teeth utilized for this were colonized by a luxuriant biofilm several micrometers thick.  The investigators concluded that the hydraulic forces produced by a Water Flosser with 1,200 pulsations per minute can remove biofilm.  The study evaluated the biofilm via scanning electron microscopy.  They noted that this method provides a high level of confidence in the direct demonstration of biofilm removal.

6.  It is easy to use.  Using the Water Flosser is easy to use and it takes only about a minute to cleanse the entire mouth.  Beyond the initial investment, all you need is water.  It is appropriate for people of almost any age; and there are even Water Flossers made especially for children as young as age 6 to be used with adult supervision.

7.  It is evidence-based.  The Water Flosser has been evaluated more than 50 times since its introduction in 1962.  Clinical findings for reducing bleeding and gingivitis are supported by positive outcomes from more than 20 clincial trials, many of six months duration.

Here are 10 ways you and your children can maintain dental health during Halloween and year-round:

1.  Time It Right.  The best time to eat Halloween candy (and other sugary foods) is with meals or shortly after mealtime.  Saliva production increases during meals and helps cancel out acids produced by bacteria in your mouth and helps rinse away food particles.

2.  Choose Candy Carefully.  Avoid hard candy and other sweets that stay in your mouth for a long time.  Aside from how often you snack, the length of time sugary food is in your mouth plays a role in tooth decay.  Unless it is a sugar-free product, candies that stay in the mouth for a long period of time subject teeth to an increase risk for tooth decay.

3.  Avoid Sticky Situations.  Sticky candies cling to your teeth.  The stickier candies, like taffy and gummy bears, take longer to get washed away by saliva, increasing the risk for tooth decay.

4.  Drink More Water.  Drinking fluoridated water can help prevent tooth decay.  If you choose bottled water, look for the ones that are fluoridated.

5.  Maintain a Healthy Diet.  Your body is like a complex machine.  The foods you choose as fuel and how often you "fill up" affect your general health and that of your teeth and gums.

6.  Avoid Sugary Beverages.  This includes soda, sports drinks and flavored waters.  When teeth come in frequent contact with beverages that contain sugar, the risk of tooth decay is increased.

7.  Chew Gum with the ADA Seal.  Chewing sugarless gum for 20 minutes after meals helps reduce tooth decay because increased saliva flow helps wash out food and neutralize the acid produced by dental plaque bacteria.  Some ADA approved sugarless gums are Dentyne Ice, Trident, Extra and Eclipse.

8.  Brush Twice a Day.  Brush your teeth twice a day for two minutes with an ADA-accepted fluoride toothpaste.  Remember to replace your toothbrush or electric toothbrush head every 3 months or sooner if the bristles are frayed.  A worn toothbrush will not do a good job of cleaning your teeth.

9.  Clean Between Your Teeth.  Floss your teeth at least once a day.  Decay-causing bacteria get between teeth where toothbrush bristles cannot reach.  Flossing helps remove plaque and food particles from between the teeth and under the gum line.

10.  Visit Your Dentist Regularly.  Your regular dental checkup can help prevent problems from occurring and can catch those that do occur early when they are easy to treat.


1. Did you know that National Flossing Day is the day after Thanksgiving?

2.  Over three million miles of dental floss are purchased in North America each year!

3.  You don't have to floss all your teeth, just the ones you want to keep! 


Dear Patients and Friends,

Thank you for giving us the great privilege of serving your dental needs all year long.  We are very grateful for the trust and confidence you place in us.

We wish you and your family a wonderful holiday season and a very happy, healthy and prosperous New Year!

Thank you again,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Monica Tiu Silva & Staff

Dear Patients and Friends,

Thank you for giving us the great privilege of serving your dental needs all year long.  We are very grateful for the trust and confidence you place in us.

We wish you and your family a wonderful holiday season and a very happy, healthy and prosperous New Year!

Thank you again,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Monica Tiu Silva & Staff 

5 Tips to Protect Your Holiday Smile

You can enjoy seasonal sweets and still have a healthy smile to flash in festive photos.  Here are some useful tips for the holidays and all year round.

1.  Avoid overdoing it with candy.  It's the most wonderful time of the year for candy canes, popcorn balls and cookies -- and this nonstop buffet of sweets can wreak havoc on your teeth.  If you eat a single treat and rinse well or, if possible, brush afterwards, you'll expose your teeth to less sugar than if you're constantly snacking.  That will reduce the risk of tooth decay.

2.  Snack smart.  Use a nutcracker, not your teeth, to shell nuts.  This will avoid a lot of painful and expensive damage.

3.  Keep your routine.  The holidays can upset your schedule, but it's important to still brush at least twice a day.

4.  Don't delay treatment.  Waiting until the new year to fix a broken tooth or replace a lost filling could make the problem worse.  Please give us a call if you need to schedule an appointment.

5.  Most important of all:  ENJOY YOUR HOLIDAYS!

This device provides the first archaeological evidence of a dental prosthesis in the modern period.

Archaeologists have found the earliest dental prosthesis in Tuscany, in the collective tomb of an aristocratic family from the late Middle Ages.  The denture is made of five human teeth linked together by a golden band inserted into the dental roots.

The prosthesis was found during excavations in 2010 inside the San Francesco Monastery at the town of Lucca, among human remains.  The family buried there, the Guinigis, governed the city between 1392 and 1429.  Their bodies were buried together in two large stone tombs in their private chapel, and over the years, their skeletal remains accumulated.

When the exploration of their tombs took place, the researchers were surprised to find the dental appliance with the skeletons.  While some historical sources had described the gold band technology for the replacement of missing teeth in medieval times, none of these devices had been unearthed to date.

The find constitutes the earliest evidence of the use of dental prosthesis in this historical period and offers a unique insight into the advanced dentistry techniques at the time.

In their paper, published in Clinical Implant Dentistry and Related Research, the archaeologists led by Simona Minozzi from the University of Pisa describe the device in great detail.  Even though they are unable to date it precisely due to its advanced state of deterioration, it seems it was created after the Guinigi family governed Lucca.

Although it was found in the oldest layers of the tomb, dating back to the early years of its utilization at the end of 14th century, it was also discovered alongside pottery fragments and devotional medals dated to the beginning of the 17th century.  The hypothesis is that it may have slid down from the upper layers of the tomb.  The prosthesis is composed of five teeth linked together by the golden band to replace the anterior arch of the jaw.  The five teeth include from right to left the right canine, the left second incisor, two right central incisors and the left canine.  The surprising element there is that the correct anatomical sequence is not respected.  A closer analysis of the teeth used to create the prosthesis also revealed that they had belonged to different individuals.

"Dentistry has evolved over time from a rather barbaric practice to a technologically advanced industry, and even early civilizations recognized the benefits of tooth replacement with different kinds of appliances.  The dental prosthesis found in the multiple tomb of the Guinigi family provides the first archaeological evidence of a dental prosthesis in this period," the authors conclude.

We conclude that we are very fortunate to live at a time when dental implants and implant crowns are state-of-the-art!


Because developing good habits at an early age and scheduling regular dental visits helps children get a good start on a lifetime of healthy teeth and gums, the American Dental Association sponsors National Children's Dental Health Month each February.

Parents and teachers can help kids celebrate and learn more about the importance of a healthy smile.  The ADA offers free downloadable information, kid-friendly oral health worksheets and games on  Click on the For Kids tab on the left side of the page for a variety of age-appropriate activities, games, videos and presentations.  There are also teaching guides that adults can use at home, in the classroom or in other community-based settings.

Read the entire Article...

Because developing good habits at an early age and scheduling regular dental visits helps children get a good start on a lifetime of healthy teeth and gums, the American Dental Association sponsors National Children's Dental Health Month each February.

Parents and teachers can help kids celebrate and learn more about the importance of a healthy smile.  The ADA offers free downloadable information, kid-friendly oral health worksheets and games on  Click on the For Kids tab on the left side of the page for a variety of age-appropriate activities, games, videos and presentations.  There are also teaching guides that adults can use at home, in the classroom or in other community-based settings.

8 Things You Might Not Know About Your Toothbrush

1.  The toothbrush is 5,000 years old.  In various forms, that is.  Ancient civilizations used a "chew stick," a thin twig with a frayed end, to remove food from their teeth.  Over time, toothbrushes evolved and were made from bone, wood or ivory handles and stiff bristles of hogs, boars or other animals.  The modern nylon-bristled toothbrush we use today was invented in 1938.

2.  The first mass-produced toothbrush was invented in prison.  In 1770, an Englishman named William Addis was jailed for inciting a riot.  He saw fellow prisoners using a rag covered in soot or salt to clean their teeth.  Addis saved an animal bone from dinner and received bristles from a guard.  Accounts state he bored tiny holes into the bone, inserted the bristles and sealed them with glue.  After his release, he modified his prototype, started a company and manufactured his toothbrush.  That company, Wisdom Toothbrushes, still exists in the United Kingdom today.

3.  There is no "correct" order for brushing and flossing.  Brushing before flossing, flossing before brushing -- it doesn't matter to your teeth, as long as you do both.

4.  Toothbrushes like to be left out in the open.  Cleaning your toothbrush is easy.  Rinse it with tap water to remove any remaining toothpaste and debris.  Store it upright and allow it to air dry.  If you store your toothbrush with other toothbrushes, make sure they are separated to prevent cross contamination.  And do not routinely cover toothbrushes or store them in closed containers.  A moist environment such as a closed container is more conducive to the growth of unwanted bacteria than the open air.

5.  Lifespan = 3 to 4 months.  Make sure to replace your toothbrush or electric toothbrush brushhead every 3 to 4 months, or sooner if the bristles are frayed.  A worn toothbrush won't do as good of a job cleaning your teeth.

6.  When it comes to choosing a brush, go soft.  Whether you use a manual or electric toothbrush, choose a soft-bristled brush.  Firm or even medium-strength bristles may cause damage to your gums and enamel.  When brushing your teeth, don't scrub vigorously - only brush hard enough to clean the film off your teeth.  Your fluoride toothpaste will do the rest of the work.

7.  Remember: 2 minutes, 2 times a day.  Brushing your teeth 2 minutes twice a day goes a long way to keeping your smile healthy.

8.  Sharing is caring, but not for toothbrushes.  Sharing a toothbrush can mean you're also sharing germs and bacteria.  This could be a particular concern if you have a cold or flu, or you have a condition that leaves your immune system compromised.


Do You Have Sensitive Teeth?

Is the taste of ice cream or a sip of hot coffee sometimes a painful experience for you?  Does brushing or flossing make you wince occasionally?  If so, you may have sensitive teeth.

Possible causes include:

-  Tooth decay

-  Fractured teeth

-  Worn fillings

-  Gum disease

-  Worn tooth enamel

-  Exposed tooth root

In healthy teeth, a layer of enamel protects the crowns of your teeth -- the part above the gum line.  Under the gum line a layer called cementum protects the tooth root.  Underneath both the enamel and the cementum is dentin.  Dentin is less dense than enamel and cementum and contains microscopic tubules (small hollow tubes or canals).  When dentin loses its protective covering of enamel or cementum, these tubules allow heat and cold or acidic or sticky foods to reach the nerves and cells inside the tooth.  Dentin may also be exposed when gums recede.  The result can be hypersensitivity.

Sensitive teeth can be treated.  The type of treatment will depend on what is causing the sensitivity.  Your dentist may suggest one of a variety of treatments:

-  Desensitizing toothpaste.  This contains compounds that help block transmission of sensation from the tooth surface to the nerve and usually requires several applications before the sensitivity is reduced.  There are several brands of sensitive toothpaste you can purchase from your local store.  Or you may want to try Clinpro Tooth Creme which we are currently selling for $10 a tube.  It has a mild vanilla mint flavor and is excellent for sensitive teeth.

- Fluoride gel.  This is an in-office treatment which strengthens tooth enamel and reduces the transmission of sensations.  We highly recommend this treatment for adults as well as children.  If your dental insurance does not cover this procedure, it costs $25.

- A crown or bonding.  These may be used to correct a flaw or decay that results in sensitivity.

- Surgical gum graft.  If gum tissue has been lost from the root, this will protect the root and reduce sensitivity.  If a patient needs this procedure, they are referred out to a periodontist (a gum specialist).

- Root canal.  If sensitivity is severe and persistent and cannot be treated by other means, you will be referred out to an endodontist (a root canal specialist).

Proper oral hygiene is the key to preventing sensitive tooth pain.  Ask your dentist if you have any questions about your daily oral hygiene routine or concerns about tooth sensitivity.

The American Dental Association (ADA) and the Oral Cancer Foundation (OCF) have joined forces to remind everyone that regular oral cancer examinations from your dental professional are the best way to detect oral cancer in its early stages.  Regular dental visits can improve the chances that any suspicious changes in your oral health will be caught early.

In between dental visits, it is important for patients to be aware of the following signs and symptoms, and to see their dentist if they do not disappear after two weeks.

*  a sore or irritation that doesn't go away

*  red or white patches

*  pain, tenderness or numbness in mouth or lips

*  a lump, thickening, rough spot, crust or small eroded area

*  difficulty chewing, swallowing, speaking or moving your jaw or tongue

*  a change in the way your teeth fit together when you close your mouth

Research has identified a number of factors that may contribute to the development of oral cancer.  Those at an especially high risk of developing oral cancer are heavy drinkers and smokers older than 50.  The human papilloma virus version 16, which is sexually transmitted, is related to the increasing incidence of mouth cancer in non-smokers.  It is likely that there is a complex interaction of many external and internal factors that play a role in the development of oral cancer.

Your mouth is one of your body's most important early warning systems.  Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores that last more that two weeks.  Should you discover something suspicious, make an appointment for a prompt examination.  Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery.

Clinpro Tooth Creme 0.21% w/w Sodium Fluoride Anti-Cavity Paste contains fluoride and an innovative Tri-Calcium Phosphate ingredient to deliver more fluoride to your teeth than regular toothpaste.  Clinpro Tooth Creme can revitalize tooth enamel and help remineralize your teeth giving them the nourishment they need to help reverse the damage if decay has started.

Clinpro Tooth Creme is a breakthrough in anti-cavity protection.  It helps strengthen teeth to protect them from decay, helps reduce root cavities and contains a mild abrasive that gently removes stains to help clean and whiten your teeth.

When you use Clinpro Tooth Creme you only need a pea-sized amount on your toothbrush.  Brush for at least two minutes and then spit out.  Rinsing is optional.  One tube will last quite a while.

If you are interested in trying this product, we are currently selling it for the bargain price of $10.00 per tube.


Compared to other species, you may think that we humans are extraordinarily unlucky to have to depend on the same set of adult teeth for the majority of our life.  Shark enthusiasts are familiar with the fact that sharks have unlimited sets of teeth during their lifetimes.  Galeophobes (people with an extreme fear of sharks) might be terrified to learn that sharks have rows of baby teeth underneath the skin waiting to replace the functional ones, and shed and replace teeth as often as every three weeks, causing experts to believe that the sea floor is littered with shark teeth.

So if sharks, and most reptiles and amphibians can replace their teeth over a lifetime, why do humans and most mammals only get two sets of teeth?

Abigail Tucker, a professor of development and evolution at King's College London says that there is a trade-off between the complexity of the teeth and the amount of sets the species gets.  Because we are mammals and have the ability to chew, we have developed complex sets of teeth with multiple cusps (the bumps and mounds that define the shape of our teeth).  While our pointy canine teeth (cuspids) each have only one cusp, our premolars (bicuspids) each have two cusps and our molars each have four or five cusps.

The complexity is linked to diet, with bamboo eaters having the most complex teeth.  Giant pandas and bamboo eating lemurs have complex back teeth with lots of cusps so they can really chew and grind hard bamboo stalks.  Therefore, their teeth look similar even though they're completely unrelated to one another.

There are other fascinating examples of animals with unique dental abilities.  Piranhas have teeth that are fused together to make large teeth that resemble a sharp blade. When they shed teeth, they lose an entire quadrant all at once and rely on the other three quadrants to survive while the new teeth come in.

While mammals are typically restricted to to two sets of teeth -- a set of deciduous (baby) teeth and a set of permanent teeth -- some mammals have retained the ability to create more teeth.  Manatees, for example, keep forming new teeth in the back of their mouths over the course of their entire lives.

It's unlikely that humans will ever evolve to have more than two sets of teeth, but that has not stopped scientists from attempting find a way to replace missing teeth. Dental experts have found a new way to split a tooth into two fully functional teeth and then successfully implant them into the jaws of mice -- a breakthrough which could help human patients in the future.  Mice that received the teeth were able to chew and feel stimulus.  However, the implanted teeth were just half the size of normal teeth.

Dr. Gareth Fraser at the University of Sheffield in England and his colleagues analyzed the teeth of catshark embryos and identified the genes involved during stages of early shark tooth formation.

These genes are found in cells called the dental lamina, which are responsible for the lifelong continuation of tooth development and regeneration in sharks.

The same genes are still present in humans -- deriving from the time when humans and sharks had a common ancestor.

In all there are 400 genes which interact to grow a tooth.  Dr. Fraser said many further breakthroughs are needed to understand how to switch the network on and the work will take many years.  But he said, "Regenerating teeth will happen."

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ORAL-B GENIUS Electric Toothbrush

You know you're getting a superior clean with the new Oral-B Genius Electric Toothbrush.

Designed to help you brush like your dentist recommends, the Genius seamlessly connects with the Oral-B smartphone app via Bluetooth technology to provide you with customized real-time feedback about your brushing habits, including highly advanced Position Detection technology that ensures you never miss a zone.  The smartphone app is optional and it is up to you if you wish to utilize it or not.

The brush and app also provide time coaching to make sure you brush the recommended 2 minutes and include a pressure alert to protect your gums from over-brushing.

This highly advanced brush features a dentist-inspired round head that surrounds and cups each tooth with dynamic oscillating, rotating and pulsating movements to remove up to 100% more plaque than a regular manual toothbrush.

The 360 SmartRing with LED lights allows you to personalize your brushing experience with 12 colors while delivering visual feedback on your brushing pressure, brushing time and selected mode.

Discover a revolution in oral care with the new intelligent Oral-B Genius Electric Toothbrush, the number one brand used and recommended by dentists worldwide.


FIRST OF ALL, WHAT CAUSES BAD BREATH?  While many causes are harmless, bad breath can sometimes be a sign of something more serious.

BACTERIA - Bad breath can happen anytime thanks to the hundreds of types of bad breath-causing bacteria that naturally live in your mouth.  Your mouth also acts like a natural hothouse that allows these bacteria to grow.  When you eat, bacteria feed on the food left in your mouth and leave an unpleasant-smelling waste product behind.

DRY MOUTH - If your mouth is feeling parched, it may not be making enough saliva.  Saliva is important because it works around the clock to wash out your mouth.  If you don't have enough, your mouth isn't being cleaned as much as it should be.  Dry mouth can be caused by certain medications, salivary gland problems or by simply breathing through your mouth.

GUM DISEASE - Bad breath that just won't go away or a constant bad taste in your mouth can be a warning sign of advanced gum disease, which is caused by plaque, a sticky, cavity-causing film which contains millions of bacteria.

FOOD - Garlic, onions, coffee ... The list of breath offending foods is long, and what you eat affects the air you exhale.

SMOKING and TOBACCO - Smoking stains your teeth, gives you bad breath and puts you at risk for a host of health problems.  Tobacco reduces your ability to taste foods and irritates gum tissues.  Tobacco users are more likely to suffer from gum disease.  Since smoking also affects your sense of smell, smokers may not be aware of how their breath smells.

MEDICAL CONDITIONS - Mouth infections can cause bad breath.  However, if your dentist has ruled out other causes and you brush and floss every day, your bad breath could be the result of another problem, such as a sinus condition, gastric reflux, diabetes, liver or kidney disease.  In this case, it is wise to see your healthcare provider.


BRUSH AND FLOSS - Be sure to brush twice a day and clean between your teeth daily with floss to get rid of all that bacteria that's causing bad breath.

TAKE CARE OF YOUR TONGUE - Don't forget about your tongue when you're taking care of your teeth.  If you stick out your tongue and look way back, you'll see a white or brown coating.  That's where most of bad breath bacteria can be found.  You can simply brush your tongue gently or use a tongue scraper.

MOUTH RINSE -   Over-the-counter mouth rinses can help kill bacteria or neutralize and temporarily mask bad breath.  It's only a temporary solution, however.  The longer you wait to brush and floss away the food in your mouth, the more likely your breath will offend.

KEEP DENTURES CLEAN - If you wear removable dentures or partial dentures, take them out at night and clean them thoroughly before using them again the next morning.

KEEP THAT SALIVA FLOWING - To get more saliva moving in your mouth, try eating healthy foods that require a lot of chewing, like apples.  You can also try chewing sugar-free gum.  In addition, you may want to try Spry Moisturizing Mouth Spray which can be purchased on or Biotene products which can be purchased at your local pharmacy.

QUIT SMOKING - Giving up this dangerous habit is good for your body in many ways.  Not only will you have better breath, you'll have a better quality of life.

VISIT YOUR DENTIST REGULARLY - If you're concerned about what's causing your bad breath, make an appointment to see your dentist.  Regular checkups allow your dentist to detect any problems such as gum disease or dry mouth and stop them before they become more serious.  If your dentist determines your mouth is healthy, you may be referred to your primary care doctor.

Pet owners spend many hours walking and grooming their dogs, but few dovote nearly as much time to another very important element of a pet's health and well-being: their teeth.

Dr. Fraser Hale, a veterinary dental specialist based in Guelph, Ontario, says, "Even at eight weeks of age, they can have problems.  At every vet checkup, they should evaluate [the dog's] oral development to catch any little problems."  Issues like periodontal disease or fractured roots may not be visible in a conscious dog, so a thorough dental exam may require x-rays under anesthesia.

"Little dogs particularly are prone to having a number of developmental dental problems," Hale explains.  "They may have a baby tooth that has failed to fall out."  Also, crowding from a retained baby tooth can lead to plaque buildup.

In general, larger dogs are less prone to these problems, but they can break a tooth chewing on a bone or other hard object.  Once your vet has ruled out pre-existing problems that would make tooth brushing painful, he or she may recommend brushing your dog's teeth regularly to prevent the buildup of plaque.

Introduce your dog to the habit gradually, and you can use treats as a reward.  "Take it in small steps to basically trick them into something they want to have happen," Hale says.  "With any behavior training, you've got to be consistent and have lots of positivity about it."

Hale stresses that all at-home dental products, including doggie toothpaste, dental chews, dental care food and mouth sprays, are preventative measures and won't treat pre-exisiting dental problems.

Your dog may still need periodic cleanings and evaluations from a veterinarian, just as you need to visit a dentist even if you brush and floss regularly.  During an evaluation while your pet is under anesthesia, the vet may recommend extracting some teeth to prevent future problems and Hale says that's okay.

"The goal is to optimize oral health, not to maximize the number of teeth," Hale says.  "Freedom from infection comes above all else."










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The newly discovered Denisovan tooth is the oldest specimen found of this ancient human cousin.

More than 100,000 years ago in a Siberian cave there lived a child with a loose tooth.  One day her molar fell out and fossilized over many millenniums, keeping it safe from the elements and the tooth fairy.

But she wasn't just any child.  Scientists say she belonged to a species of extinct cousins of Neanderthals and modern humans known today as the Denisovans.  And in a paper published recently in the journal of Science Advances, a team of paleoanthropologists reported that she is only the fourth individual of this species ever discovered.

"We only have relatively little data from this archaic group, so having any additional individuals is something we're very excited about," said Viviane Slon, a doctoral candidate at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany, and lead author of the study.

The scant fossil record for these ancient hominins previously included only two adult molars and a finger bone.  The Denisovans were only correctly identified in 2010 by a team of researchers led by Svante Paabo, who used the finger bone to sequence the species' genome.

Scientists exploring Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains discovered the worn baby tooth in 1984 and labeled it 'Denisova 2.' At the time, its origins were a mystery.  But now, after performing DNA analysis on the deciduous (baby) tooth, researchers say it was one of the elusive Denisovans.

"We think based on the DNA sequences that 'Denisova 2' is at least 100,000 years, possibly 150,000 years old.  Or a bit more," said Ms. Slon.  "So far it makes it the oldest Denisovan."

She said the baby tooth is at least 20,000 years older than the next oldest Denisovan specimen, a molar labeled 'Denisova 8.' It is also one of the oldest hominin remains found in Central Asia so far.

To determine the origins of 'Denisova 2' the team first performed a CT scan of the tooth to preserve its structure for future studies.  Then Ms. Slon donned a pair of gloves and used a dentistry tool to scrape off the tooth's surface in order to reduce contamination lingering from the cave site or where it was stored.  Using a different drill bit, she drilled into its root and collected about 10 milligrams of material, which contained DNA.

After sequencing the DNA she compared genetic information from the sample with genetic data already collected from Denisovans, Neanderthals and modern humans.

"We saw it was most similar to Denisovan mitochondrial genomes," she said.  "That was exciting because that was a good indication that this was another Denisovan individual."

Bence Viola, a paleoanthropologist from the University of Toronto and an author on the paper, said there was not too much to be learned from studying the tooth's morphology or appearance.

The genetic analysis, on the other hand, provided the keys to learning more about the species.  The study suggests that the species had less genetic variability than modern humans and more genetic diversity than seen in Neanderthal nuclear DNA.

Todd R. Disotell, a molecular anthropologist from New York University who was not involved in the study, said that the team's genetic analysis was "rock solid."  He said that what he found most interesting was how old the sample was, which showed how long Denisovans lived around the cave, and the insight it provided to the species' genetic variation.  He added that the findings help show the diversity of humanlike species that once inhabited Earth at the same time.

Dr. Bernard A. Wood, a professor of human origins at the Center for the Advanced Study of Human Paleobiology at George Washington University, said the paper demonstrated the power of molecular biology as a tool for paleoanthropology.

"Talk about extracting blood from a stone," he said, "this is extracting treasure from a tooth."

This is NOT a scientifically accurate depiction of oral bacteria.


Were you born to have bad teeth?

When it comes to allocating blame for tooth decay, one of the most common chronic childhood diseases worldwide, experts point fingers at both genes and dental hygiene as causes.  Excessive sugar consumption and acid buildup in the mouth have long been linked with cavities, but there are clearly other factors in play.

Scientists are working to pin down all the underlying causes of cavities, and the microbial communities living in your mouth are one of those understudied wildcards.  In a paper published recently in the journal Cell Host & Microbe, researchers examined the role genes, the environment and an individual's oral microbiome play in determining someone's fate in the dentist's chair.

To examine the interplay of all these variables, scientists turned to identical and fraternal twins.  Identical twins, you'll remember, grow from one sperm and one zygote that splits and forms two embryos -- they're genetically identical.  Fraternal twins form from two different eggs, fertilized by two sperm; thus, they are genetically different.  Researchers commonly turn to identical and fraternal twins to study the role genes play in the development of a trait or disease.

Researchers in this study swabbed the mouths of 485 pairs of twins (205 identical twin pairs) between the ages of 5 and 11.  They relied on children in the study because young siblings likely encountered the same diet and environment, which added another level of variable control.

They found that genes did, indeed, influence the composition of the oral microbiome -- identical twins had microbiomes that were more similar than fraternal twins.  However, the species of bacteria that were linked to heritability -- the degree a trait is due to genetic variation -- weren't associated with the onset of cavities.  Further, as kids age, the microbes they inherit from mom and dad decrease, while microbes introduced through the environment increase.

And, here's the crux of the study:  Researchers found no evidence that bacteria associated with the onset of cavities were driven by genetic factors.  Rather, bacteria associated with cavities, like Streptococcus mutans, were in higher abundance in the mouths of kids who consumed more sugar, and vice versa.  In other words, external factors tend to have an outsize role shaping the oral microbiome for the worse.

The big takeaway here is that researchers can now further target the species of bacteria that are associated with poor oral health.  Ultimately, it might be possible to determine someone's susceptibility to cavities by examining the mouth microbiome.  Insights like this could do more than keep us out of the dentist's chair, because oral health can also influence the onset of disease in the rest of the body.

The oral microbiome is just one of many factors that determine oral health.  The strength of tooth enamel is a big one, and people with softer enamel could be more prone to cavities.  The immune system and saliva composition can influence the populations of microorganisms that can cause cavities or other infections.  Even the shape of teeth can cause plaque to stick around in hard-to-reach corners.  These are all genetic factors that you probably can't do much about.

Still, consuming acidic and sugary beverages and snacks are probably the biggest no-no's when it comes to maintaining a healthy mouth, whether you're blessed with stellar genes or not.


Your kids (and you too) may be ready to indulge in sweet treats this Halloween, but don't let the holiday turn into an oral health fright fest.  To keep everyone's smile safe from creepy cavities this season and all year-round, consider these tips from the Academy of General Dentistry (AGD).

Don't Get Stuck.  "Sticky, chewy candies are cavity-causing culprits," says AGD spokesperson Connie White, DDS, FAGD.  "Gummies, taffy, caramel -- they all get stuck in the pits and grooves of teeth, where it's nearly impossible for saliva to wash them away.  The longer that candy remains stuck in the teeth, the higher the risk of developing cavities."  It's a good idea to brush your teeth following candy consumption.  If a toothbrush isn't handy, says Dr. White, a glass of water will help swish away the sugars.

If the candy is sour, however, hold off on the brushing.  Sour candy is likely acidic, so it's best to wait at least 30 minutes to an hour before brushing.  The action of brushing can actually spread the acid onto more tooth surfaces, increasing its erosive action on tooth enamel.

Eat, Then Treat.  On Halloween night, allow children to enjoy a few pieces of candy, but only after they've eaten a nutritious meal.

"Chewing during a meal stimulates saliva, which has protective enzymes and minerals to cleanse the teeth and protect against cavities," says AGD spokesperson Mark Malterud, DDS, MAGD.  "Plus eating before treating will give kids nice full tummies, tummies that might have a little less room for candy."

Do Your Part.  When trick-or-treaters visit your home, you can pass out teeth-friendly treats.  Some examples are plain chocolates without sticky fillings which melt and disappear quickly, sugar-free gum which can increase saliva production and help prevent tooth decay and mini packets of pretzels or goldfish.

Brushing Basics.  "No matter what season it is, kids should be brushing their teeth for two minutes twice a day and flossing once a day," advises Dr. White.  "It's especially important to brush before bedtime.  Otherwise, sugars will linger on the teeth all night long, increasing their risk of cavities."



At this time of Thanksgiving celebration our thoughts turn gratefully to you with warm appreciation.

From Our Family to Yours:  Have a Very Happy Thanksgiving!


Your teeth help you chew, speak and smile, but how much do you really know about your teeth?  Here are some reasons why your teeth are truly remarkable.

1.  People have been caring for their teeth for centuries.  Did you know the first toothbrushes were actually twigs our ancestors chewed on, using the frayed ends to cleanse their teeth?  Around 5,000 B.C., the Egyptians used crushed eggshells and ground animal hooves to clean and polish their teeth.  By the 1700s, a British inventor had adapted a design first seen in China -- a bone handle with boar bristles inserted into small holes and secured with wire.  Modern toothbrushes with nylon bristles arrived in the late 1930s, and the first electric toothbrush was introduced in 1954.

2.  Teeth can tell stories about you.  Scientists can tell a great deal about us just by examining our teeth.  Did you realize that our teeth reveal how old we are, what we eat and drink -- even where on Earth we may have lived?  Our teeth also carry significant clues about our overall health, including periods of stress or illness we've endured.  In short, teeth are a lasting record of our personal history.

3.  Every tooth is unique.  Whether we're talking about the 20 "baby teeth" that serve us in childhood or the 32 permanent teeth we have in our adult years, no two teeth are exactly the same shape and size.  Each tooth in your mouth has its own unique profile, and teeth also vary widely from person to person.  So your smile really is a true mark of your individuality!

 4.  The blueprint for your teeth is present the day you're born.  When babies are born, the crowns of their first 20 teeth are already in place under the gums, waiting for the right time to break through -- starting sometime between the ages of 3 to 6 months.  Throughout childhood, the crowns and roots of adult teeth are already forming under those baby teeth, waiting until it's time to begin pushing them out of the way.  And here's one more fun fact:  In 1950, the average gift from the Tooth Fairy was just 25 cents.

5.  Cleaning between your teeth is just as important as brushing the parts you see.  When we brush, we're able to easily reach the tops and sides of our teeth,  But the surfaces between -- which make up a significant part of our tooth enamel -- need proper cleaning too.  This is why it's best to clean between your teeth daily to remove food and bacteria and promote healthy gums.  We recommend using dental floss at least once a day. And in addition to regular flossing, the Waterpik Water Flosser does an outstanding job of removing food particles which become lodged under the gums and cannot be reached by brushing and flossing alone.

And remember to visit us regularly for cleanings and checkups.  Your teeth are already amazing and your dentist and hygienist can help keep them that way!

Dear Patients and Friends,

Thank you for the great privilege of serving your dental needs all year long.  We deeply appreciate the confidence and trust you place in us.

At this special time of year, we wish you and your family a wonderful holiday season and a very happy, healthy New Year!

Best regards,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Monica Tiu Silva & Staff




Water Rules

Water, especially fluoridated water, is the best beverage for maintaining your oral health.  That's because fluoride helps to make teeth more resistant to the acid attacks that can cause cavities.  As of 2012, nearly 75% of the U.S. population had access to fluoridated water, so drinking water from your own kitchen sink can help prevent dental problems.

If You Can, Choose Dairy

Milk, and other dairy products such as cheese and yogurt, are low in sugar, which is a good thing for your dental health.  Plus they contain protein and are full of calcium, which can help to strengthen your teeth.


Lean Proteins for the Win

Phosphorus-rich foods such as meat, poultry, fish, milk and eggs help to strengthen your teeth and contain valuable protein.


Fruit and Veggies Pack an Extra Punch

Fruits and veggies are an important part of any balanced diet, and they are also good for your teeth.  Since they are high in water and fiber, they help to balance the sugars they contain and help to clean your teeth.  Chewing also helps to stimulate saliva production, which washes harmful acids and food particles away from your teeth.

Nourishing Nuts

Nuts contain protein and minerals important for overall health.  In addition, nuts that are low in carbohydrates don't add to your risk of cavities.  Why?  Because tooth decay is caused by acid-producing bacteria that are activated by carbs.  Another benefit is that chewing nuts stimulates saliva production, which can reduce your risk for tooth decay.




The national debate over health insurance largely overlooked dental coverage.  But many of the problems in the health care industry -- lack of access, high costs and poor health outcomes -- afflict dental coverage too.

With far fewer Americans having dental than medical insurance, and poor dental health being linked to adverse consequences, those who forgo  dental treatment could find themselves needing extensive treatment with considerable bills.

Around 40 percent of Americans lacked dental insurance at the end of 2012, according to the National Association of Dental Plans.  That's compared to 12.9 percent without health insurance, according to the latest figures from Gallup.  Those lacking coverage are far less likely to see a dentist -- both for regular preventative exams and treatment of acute pain and other problems.

Many Americans don't see the dentist unless something is wrong, and 56 percent of those without dental insurance skip preventive care altogether.

Even the most dedicated brusher and flosser can still have dental problems if they go years without seeing a professional.  These problems can build up over time and can lead to a dental emergency that could be costly.

"I've seen patients with excellent home dental care develop severe gum disease because their tartar had built up for years, causing gingivitis and gum disease," says Dr. Marshall Young, a dentist in Newport Beach, California.  "Also, patients that fail to come for regular checkups and cleanings can have decayed teeth that were at one time small, fixable issues."

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate that more than 27 percent of U.S. adults ages 20 to 44 have untreated cavities.  Minor cavities can turn into major problems, and what would have required a filling can eventually require a root canal or extraction.  Young says regular exams can uncover small problems before they grow in both size and cost.

In addition to financial costs, there's pain, and often embarassment that comes with dental problems.  Few pains are as brutal as a toothache, and few imperfections make someone more self-conscious than missing teeth that show in their smile.

Lack of dental care not only impacts one's oral health.  Studies have linked poor dental health to a variety of health issues.

"There are clear links between gum disease and other systemic issues, such as heart disease, diabetes and respiratory disease, to name a few," Young says, adding that a dental exam can also identify digestive and bone health problems.

Also, oral cancer, including cancers of the tongue, tonsils and gums, are often first identified in the dentist's chair.

Preventative care can be expensive, but it comes at a far lesser price than treatment after something goes wrong.

Please note that for our patients who do not have dental insurance, we offer an In-House Dental Plan with an annual fee that covers routine preventive visits. In addition, all other services are offered at reduced fees under the plan.  If you don't have access to dental insurance, please ask us about our In-House Dental Plan.


3000 BCE - As early as 3000 BCE, Assyrian cuneiform medical tests mention teeth-cleaning procedures.  Toothpicks dating back to this same time have been found in other sites in Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq).

1193 - 1164 BCE - Aesculapius, the Roman equivalent of Greek god of medicine and healing Asclepius, was believed to advocate cleansing the mouth and teeth.

384 - 322 BCE - Greek Philosopher Aristotle, student of Plato, discussed teeth in some of his writings.  In "The History of Animals" Book 2, Part 3, he incorrectly wrote that men have more teeth than women.

355 BCE - Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates is the first to recommend a dentifrice powder to clean the teeth.

936 - 1013 CE - Arabian surgeon and author Albucasis was the first to write about the formation of tartar.  He designed a set of 14 scrapers to thoroughly clean the teeth.

1728 - Pierre Fauchard, often called the "father of modern dentistry," published Le Chirurgien Dentiste (The Surgical Dentist), advising against brushing in favor of cleaning the teeth with a toothpick or a sponge and mixture of water or brandy.

1819 - In A Practical Guide to the Management of Teeth, Levi Spear Parmley advocated cleaning the teeth with waxed silk, in addition to brushing.

1845 - The American Journal of Dental Science prescribes cleaning the teeth with floss silk two or three times per day.  This is the first known reference to preventative dental hygiene in an American journal.

1875 - Michigan legislature establishes  the University of Michigan College of Dental Surgery, the first dental college associated with a public university.

1882 - Willoughby D. Miller determines microorganisms cause dental decay and caries.

1902 - Dr. C.M. Wright published "A Plea for a Sub-Specialty in Dentistry," advocating the training and licensing of lay women to assist in dentistry.

1903 - Thaddeus P. Hyatt, called "The Father of Preventative Dentistry," encouraged dentists to not only repair teeth, but to help patients prevent decay.  Hyatt became an early advocate for the acceptance of dental hygienists.

1906 - Dr. Alfred C. Fones trained Irene Newman as his apprentice, scaling and polishing teeth.

 1909 - Dr. E.L. Pettibone gave the first lecture in oral hygiene in a public school.

1910 - Ohio College of Dentistry began a formal program for "dental nurses," but the dental community objected so strongly that graduates were not allowed to practice.

1913 - Alfred C. Fones opened the Fones School of Dental Hygiene in Bridgeport, Connecticut.

1914 - Fones began the Bridgeport Demonstration Project, employing graduates from his dental hygiene program to provide dental care in public schools.  His first graduates formed the Connecticut Dental Hygienists' Association.

1917 - Connecticut became the first state to pass dental hygiene licensure law.  Irene Newman, the first person trained by Alfred Fones, becomes the first licensed hygienist.

1921 - The University of Michigan begins offering a one-year dental hygiene program.  That same year, the State of Michigan recognizes dental hygiene as a legal profession.

1923 - The American Dental Hygienists' Association (ADHA) was founded; annual membership dues were $2.00.

1938 - As a result of the Michigan State Dental Society report on dental hygienists, the University of Michigan Dental Hygiene program was extended to 2 years.

1940 - 1941 - The ADHA recommends that dental hygiene applicants hold high school diplomas and study hygiene for 2 years.

1950 - 1951 -The American Dental Association endorses the U.S. Public Health Department's fluoridation policy.

1952 - All states offer licensure programs for dental hygienists.

1957 - ADHA  removes membership restrictions based on race, creed and color.

1960 - Columbia University offers the first Master's degree in dental hygiene.

1964 - ADHA deletes the word "female" from its constitution and bylaws.

1965 - Jack Orio graduates from the University of New Mexico and becomes the first male dental hygienist.  That year American Dental Association bylaws were amended to allow equality for male hygienists.

1970 - The first International Symposium on Dental Hygiene was held in Italy.

1971 - Pants are first offered as part of the dental hygienist's uniform, allowing hygienists to sit while working on patients.

1978 - Michigan legislature passes a law allowing hygienists to administer local anesthesia if they have completed appropriate coursework.

1980s - Hygienists no longer wear caps as part of their uniforms, and pinning ceremonies replaced capping ceremonies in dental hygiene education programs.

1985 - The week of September 15-21 was the first National Dental Hygiene Week.

1986 - ADHA advocates a baccalaureate degree as a minimum requirement to enter the dental hygiene workforce.

1990 - Dental hygienists are allowed to administer local anesthesia in 14 states.

1991 - Michigan legislature passes a law to provide certain services without the assignment of a dentist in certain approved programs for the dentally underserved.

1993 - A 3-year grant from the Bureau of Health Professions and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services establishes the National Center for Dental Hygiene Research.

2004 - ADHA House of Delegates adopted a policy supporting the creation of an Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner credential, a mid-level oral health care professional to provide diagnostic, preventative and restorative care for underserved populations.

2009 - Minnesota passes the first law licensing Advanced Dental Therapists for professionals educated under the Advanced Dental Hygiene Practitioner model at Metropolitan State University in St. Paul.

2011 - First class of Advanced Dental Therapists graduates from Metropolitan State University and enters the workforce.

2012 - At this point 45 out of 50 states allow dental hygienists to administer local anesthesia.

February is National Children's Dental Health Month!



1.  Did you know that the average person produces a quart of saliva daily?  That's 10,000 gallons of spit over a lifetime.  Saliva is essential to good dental health because it washes food off the teeth, neutralizes acids in the mouth, fights germs and prevents bad breath.

2.  On a daily basis, your mouth is home to over 100,000,000 micro-creatures who are swimming, feeding, reproducing and depositing waste in your mouth.  Makes you want to brush your teeth, doesn't it?

3.  Our teeth are meant to last a lifetime, and our tooth enamel is the hardest part of our body -- even harder than our bones!  In order to keep our teeth for a lifetime, we need to take care of them by brushing, flossing and seeing the dentist.

4.  Did you know that 50 percent of people say that a smile is the first thing they notice about someone?  Brush twice a day and floss daily so the smile people are noticing is shiny and white!

5.  We think a shiny, white smile is attractive, but did you know in medieval Japan white teeth were considered ugly?  Women used roots and inks to stain their teeth black, which they felt was much more attractive.

6.  We need to keep our teeth healthy because we use our teeth to bite and chew, but did you know that dolphins only use their teeth to grasp?  Dolphins can't chew because dolphins' jaws do not have muscles.

7.  Dental floss was first manufactured in 1882.  If you floss once a day, you will use about 5 miles of floss over your lifetime!  Apparently dental floss has other uses -- a prison inmate in West Virginia braided floss into a rope, scaled the prison wall and escaped.

8.  If you brush your teeth twice a day for two minutes each time, you will brush your teeth for about 24 hours each year, or 76 days over the course of your life!  All this brushing will use about 20 gallons of toothpaste.

9.  Did you know that just like our fingerprints, everyone's tongue print is different?  Our tongue is the only muscle in our body that isn't attached to something at both ends.  When we brush our teeth, we should also remember to brush our tongue.  Just like bacteria builds up on and in between your teeth, bacteria also builds up on your tongue.  The bacteria and other debris trapped on the tongue can cause bad breath and can also redeposit onto teeth and gums, increasing the likelihood of plaque and tartar buildup.

10. In 1816 Sir Isaac Newton's tooth was sold in London for today's equivalent of $35,700.  Don't expect that kind of money from the Tooth Fairy!  In America, she brings an average of $3 per tooth.

11. Dentists have been around a long time -- archeologists have evidence of the first dental fillings in teeth from people who lived between 7,500 and 9,000 years ago.

12. In China they celebrate national "Love Your Teeth Day" each year on the 20th of September.  To promote dental health, a Chinese dentist used 28,000 teeth to build a giant tooth-shaped tower.

13. If you had a toothache in Germany in the Middle Ages, you would have been told to kiss a donkey to cure your toothache!

14. In 1498 in China, the bristle toothbrush was invented.  The bristles were made of the stiff hairs from the back of a pig's neck.  Pig hair was used in toothbrushes until 1938, when nylon bristles were introduced.  Your toothbrush has about 2,500 nylon bristles grouped in forty tufts.

15. Most Americans did not brush their teeth every day until after World War II.  In WWII the military required that soldiers brush their teeth twice a day to keep their teeth healthy.  The soldiers brought that habit home after the war.

16. The world's oldest recipe for toothpaste is from Egypt in 400 A.D.  The formula included mint, salt, grains of pepper and dried iris flower.  A modern day dentist made the toothpaste and said, "I found that it was not unpleasant, afterwards my mouth felt fresh and clean."

17. Toothpaste was used as long ago as 500 BC in China and India.  Ancient toothpastes included ingredients such as soot, honey, crushed egg shells and ground ox hooves.  In 1873 Colgate released the first commercially prepared toothpaste, which had the minty taste we know today.

Will Dentists Eventually be able to Regenerate Teeth?

Currently, dentists treat a cavity by excavating the decay and the surrounding area before filling the resulting hole with a durable composite or resin material.

But what if dentists could somehow get our teeth to regenerate themselves?  Well it turns out that Paul Sharpe, a bioengineer at King's College London and his colleagues discovered a new way to do exactly that -- in mice.  They published a study last year describing the technique in Scientific Reports.  Since then they have made additional progress that brings this procedure closer to human clinical trials.  If regrowing teeth becomes a standard dental tool, scientists say it would be one of the field's most significant advances in 50 years.

Most of the damage that our teeth endure are due to everyday wear and tear and the activity of microbes in the mouth.  These organisms coat the surface of each tooth and feed on food remnants.  As they break down particles of food, some of these microbes produce and secrete acids as a byproduct.  This acidity degrades our tooth enamel -- the hard outer layer of our teeth.

It cannot be stressed enough how important it is to clean our teeth at least twice per day.  When teeth remain uncleaned for too long, acid can eat through the enamel and begin dissolving underlying layers of dense, bony tissue called dentin.  When dentin is seriously injured, stem cells located in the tooth's soft, innermost layer (the dental pulp) morph into cells called odontoblasts, which secrete new tissue.  In fact stem cells are capable of becoming virtually any type of cell.  However, when the injury is too large or deep, fresh dentin is not sufficient to restore the tooth.  Unfortunately, the result is often a cavity.

Paul Sharpe suspected that he could dramatically boost teeth's natural healing ability by mobilizing stem cells in the dental pulp.  Earlier research had demonstrated the Wnt signaling pathway (a particular cascade of molecules involved in cell-to-cell communication) is essential for tissue repair and stem cell development in many parts of the body such as the skin, brain and intestines.  Sharpe wondered if this signaling pathway could also be important for self-repair processes in teeth.  If so, then maybe exposing damaged teeth to drugs that stimulate Wnt signaling would similarly encourage the activity of stem cells in the dental pulp, giving teeth the kind of regenerative super powers usually seen only in plants, starfish and salamanders.

In order to test this theory, Sharpe and his fellow researchers drilled holes into the molars of mice, mimicking cavities.  Then they soaked tiny collagen sponges, which are made from the same protein found in dentin, in various drugs known to stimulate Wnt signaling, including tideglusib, a compound that has been investigated in clinical trials for its potential to treat Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.  The scientists then placed these drug-soaked sponges in the drilled mouse molars, sealed them up and left them for four to six weeks.  The teeth treated with these drugs produced significantly more dentin than ones untreated or stuffed with an unsoaked sponge or typical dental fillers.  In most cases the technique restored the rodents' teeth to their former intact state.  "It was essentially a complete repair," Sharpe said.  "You can barely see the joint where the old and new dentin meet.  This could eventually be the first routine pharmaceutical treatment in dentistry."

David Mooney, a professor of bioengineering at Harvard University who was not involved in this study but who has also investigated new ways to heal teeth, says he is "very impressed" by these findings.  "This is not just scientifically important, but has significant practical advantages," he said.  Adam Celiz, an assistant professor of bioengineering at Imperial College London who was also not involved in this study, says this is an important advance in the emerging field of regenerative dentistry.  "The materials dentists use could soon be revolutionized," he said.

Any treatment that recruits the body's native stem cells or adds new stem cells to the body, however, poses a risk of uncontrolled tissue growth.  But in this case, Sharpe says, the amounts of drug used are so tiny that the risk of unwanted growth is minimal.  Adam Celiz agrees the danger is small but he says rigorous testing in lab animals and clinical trials should be done to rule out potential side effects.

Since publishing their initial study, Sharpe and his colleagues have tested their regenerative technique on rats.  Because rats have larger teeth than mice, a drilled rat molar better approximates human tooth decay.  The treatment worked just as well on the rats as it had on the mice, but the data has not yet been published.  Now Sharpe's team is investigating a larger group of candidate drugs in order to determine whether another medication works better than those already tested, and to determine optimal dose.  They are also developing an alternative delivery system that is more amenable to modern dental practices.  This involves dissolving the chosen drug in a gel that is injected into a cavity and bathed with ultraviolet light to solidify it -- a quick and easy procedure similar to one dentists already use to seal and repair teeth.

 Researchers will need to perform clinical trials with human patients before formally introducing this treatment to modern dentistry.  Clincal trials are at least several years away, Sharpe says.  However some of the drugs he might consider are already approved for other uses in humans, which he hopes could expedite the process for eventual approval.

April is Oral Cancer Awareness Month.  Over 49,000 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or throat cancer this year.  The American Dental Association (ADA) and the Oral Cancer Foundation (OCF) have teamed up to remind everyone that regular oral cancer examinations from your dental professional are the best method to detect oral cancer in its early stages.  Regular dental visits can improve the chances that any suspicious changes in your oral health will be caught early, and early detection is the key to cancer being treated more easily.

The signs and symptoms of mouth cancer may include a sore that doesn't heal, a lump or thickening of the skin or lining of your mouth, a white or reddish patch on the inside of your mouth, tongue pain, jaw pain or stiffness, difficult or painful chewing, difficult or painful swallowing or feeling that something is caught in your throat.  If you notice any of these signs or symptoms and they last for more than 2 weeks, see your doctor or dentist to get checked.

Research has identified certain risk factors that raise your risk for developing mouth cancer.  These risks include using tobacco of any kind (such as cigarettes, cigars, pipes, chewing tobacco and snuff), excessive use of alcohol and excessive sun exposure to your lips.  The human papilloma virus version 16, which is sexually transmitted, is related to the increasing incidence of mouth cancer in non-smoking patients.  It is likely that there is a complex interaction of many external and internal factors that play a role in the development of oral cancer.

There are certain lifestyle changes you can make to reduce your risk of mouth cancer which include avoiding excessive sun exposure to your lips by wearing sunscreen, eating fruits and vegetables on a regular basis which are high in vitamins and antioxidents, limiting alcohol intake and quitting smoking and the use of other tobacco products.

Your mouth is one of your body's most important early warning systems.  Don't ignore any suspicious lumps or sores that last more than 2 weeks.  Should you discover something suspicious, make an appointment for a prompt examination.  Early treatment may well be the key to complete recovery.

For more information about oral cancer, its diagnosis and treatment, you can visit the Oral Cancer Foundation's website:












Some things feel like they're going to take forever, even if they actually won't take that long at all, such as standing in line waiting to get into the next Star Wars movie, sitting in your car in a traffic jam when you're trying to get to work on time, and brushing your teeth for long enough to make your dentist proud.

Your dentist and hygienist want you to brush your teeth for two minutes twice a day.  Actually this 2-minute-twice-a-day rule isn't arbitrary.

Research shows that brushing your teeth is non-negotiable and that also doing it for at least two minutes twice a day is great for your oral health.

This recommendation comes straight from experts' mouths:  The American Dental Association (ADA) says you should be brushing for two minutes twice a day.  But experts didn't just pluck this number from thin air.  Science shows it really can boost your oral health, says Sally Cram, D.D.S., a periodontist based in Washington, D.C.

A 2016 systematic review of 33 articles published in Journal of Dental Research found that brushing fewer than two times a day was consistently associated with more tooth decay, a.k.a. cavities, than brushing twice a day or more.  Tooth decay happens thanks to plaque, a sticky, bacteria-laden film.  These bacteria produce acid that eats away at your enamel, the hard outer covering on your teeth.  They can also damage your gums and cause gingivitis, the first stage of gum disease (periodontitis).

Dr. Cram states that some research gets even more specific, showing that brushing your teeth for two minutes leads to a greater reduction in plaque than brushing for one minute.  A 2012 systematic review of 59 papers published in International Journal of Dental Hygiene found that, on average, people who brushed for one minute removed about 27% of plaque while people who brushed for two minutes removed about 41% of plaque, almost twice as much.

If you brush for fewer than two minutes twice a day, you might not be cleaning your teeth thoroughly.  When you brush your teeth, you're not just supposed to get the outside surfaces, as in the front of your teeth and sides closest to your cheeks, says Vera Tang, D.D.S., a New York City-based dentist.  You're also supposed to get the inside surfaces -- the backs of your teeth and the sides of your molars closest to your tongue.  You're also supposed to clean the chewing surfaces along with the places where your teeth and gums meet.

If you're only spending, let's say 45 seconds brushing your teeth, odds are that you'll miss some of these spots or not give them enough attention, Dr. Tang says.  That can allow plaque to remain and harden into tartar which simple toothbrushing cannot remove.  Your dentist or hygienist will need to be the ones to scrape it off.

It's also important to make sure you're not harming your teeth or gums by brushing too hard.  This is one of the reasons why we recommend using the Oral B Genius Electric Toothbrush.  Not only does it have a two-minute timer to make sure you're brushing for the most effective length of time, but it also has a red light that will flash to alert you that you're brushing too hard.

As long as you're brushing your teeth twice a day for two minutes each time, you're doing a lot to keep your mouth healthy.  "Most dental problems -- like tooth decay, gum disease and other common problems -- are really preventable," Dr. Cram says.  No matter how busy you are, it really pays off to brush for two minutes twice a day and floss at least once per day as well.

In addition to brushing and flossing, it's also important to get your regular checkups at your dental office in order to catch any dental issues early.

Is a taste of ice cream or a sip of hot coffee sometimes a painful experience for you?  Does brushing or flossing make you wince occasionally?  If so, you may have a common problem called sensitive teeth.

Cavities and fractured teeth can cause sensitive teeth.  But if your dentist has ruled these problems out, then worn tooth enamel, a cracked tooth or an exposed tooth root may be the cause.

A layer of enamel, the strongest substance in the body, protects the crowns of healthy teeth.  A layer called cementum protects the tooth root under the gum line.  Underneath the enamel and the cementum is dentin, a part of the tooth that is less dense than enamel or cementum.

The dentin contains microscopic tubules, which are small hollow tubes or canals.  When the dentin loses its protective covering, the tubules allow heat and cold or acidic or sticky foods to stimulate the nerves and cells inside the tooth.  This causes hypersensitivity and occasional discomfort.  Fortunately, the irritation does not cause permanent damage to the pulp.  Dentin may be exposed when gums recede.  The result can be hypersensitivity near the gum line.

Proper oral hygiene is the key to preventing gums from receding and causing sensitive-tooth pain.  If you brush your teeth incorrectly or even over-brush, gum problems can result.  Ask your dentist or hygienist if you have any questions about your daily oral hygiene routine.

Sensitive teeth can be treated.  Your dentist and hygienist may suggest that you try a desensitizing toothpaste such as Clinpro Tooth Creme which we sell for $10.00 per tube or Sensodyne.  These special toothpastes contain compounds that help block transmission of sensation from the tooth surface to the nerve.  Desensitizing toothpaste usually requires several applications before the sensitivity is reduced.

Your dentist and hygienist may also recommend in-office application of a fluoride varnish that strengthens tooth enamel and reduces the transmission of sensations.  Many dental insurance companies do not cover this procedure and if you are interested in having this done at your next hygiene visit, our fee is $25.00.

Toothbrushing plays an important everyday role for personal oral hygiene and effective plaque removal.  Appropriate toothbrush care and maintenance are also important considerations for sound oral hygiene.  The ADA recommends that consumers replace toothbrushes and electric toothbrush replacement brushheads approximately every 3-4 months or sooner if the bristles become frayed with use.

In recent years, scientists have studied whether toothbrushes may harbor microorganisms that could cause oral and/or systemic infection.  We know that the oral cavity is home to hundreds of different types of microorganisms.  Therefore, it is not surprising that some of these microorganisms are transferred to a toothbrush during use.  It may also be possible for microorganisms that are present in the environment where the toothbrush is stored to establish themselves on the brush.

The human body is constantly exposed to potentially harmful microbes.  However, the body is normally able to defend itself against infections through a combination of passive and active mechanisms.

General Recommendations for Toothbrush Care

The ADA and the Council on Scientific Affairs provide the following toothbrush care recommendations:

Do not share toothbrushes.  Sharing a toothbrush could result in an exchange of body fluids and/or microorganisms between the users of the toothbrush, placing the individuals involved at an increased risk for infections.  This practice could be a particular concern for persons with compromised immune systems or existing infectious diseases.

Thoroughly rinse toothbrushes with tap water after brushing to remove any remaining toothpaste and debris.  Store the brush in an upright position if possible and allow the toothbrush to air-dry until used again.  If more than one brush is stored in the same holder or area, keep the brushes separated to prevent cross-contamination.

Do not routinely cover toothbrushes or store them in closed containers.  A moist environment such as a closed container is more conducive to the growth of microorganisms than the open air.

Replace toothbrushes or toothbrush heads for electric brushes at least every 3-4 months.  The bristles become frayed and worn with use and cleaning effectiveness will decrease.  Toothbrushes will wear out more rapidly depending on factors unique to each patient.  Check brushes often for this type of wear and replace them more frequently if needed.  Children's toothbrushes often need replacing more frequently than adult brushes.

Additional Information.  Cleaning methods beyond those outlined above are not supported by the currently available clinical evidience.  While there is evidence of bacterial growth on toothbrushes, there is no clinical evidence that soaking a toothbrush in an antibacterial mouthrinse or using a commercially-available toothbrush sanitizer has any positive or negative effect on oral or systemic health.

On those hot summer days there are healthier ways to cool down than indulging in a sugar-laden treat.  And it isn't just sugar that can speed up cavities and other dental issues.  Acid, which is found in high-sugar drinks and snacks, can break down tooth enamel.  It can also lower the pH level in our mouths which encourages bad bacteria and speeds up tooth decay.

Instead of store-bought popsicles, why not make your own?  Your can mix sliced fresh fruit with yogurt, which can increase pH levels and help prevent cavities.  Just put the fruit-yogurt mixture into ice pop molds and stick it in the freezer.

Instead of sports drinks and sodas which are blamed for all kinds of things including obesity and tooth decay, stick to water.  You can always infuse it with some fresh fruit like strawberries.  Be careful to avoid lots of lemon and lime, which have a lot of acid and can erode enamel.

And it's best if ice cream is an occasional treat instead of an everyday treat.  The sugar actually tends to grab on to teeth and breaks down the enamel.

As we all know, hard and sticky candies are hard on our teeth.  And other sticky foods such as some granola and protein bars and dried fruits can lead to cavities too.  If you're going to eat some candy or a sticky protein bar, be sure to brush afterwards and if that's not possible, drink some water to help rinse off your teeth.

Another snack option is sugar-free gum with Xylitol.  Chewing sugarless gum can increase saliva and wash away acids in the mouth according to the American Dental Association.  Look for gum that has the ADA seal of approval.

Use a Waterpik for Healthy Teeth and Gums

It's quick, easy and very effective!


We highly recommend the use of a Waterpik Water Flosser for several reasons:

1.  Beneficial in the Treatment of Periodontitis.  Periodontal disease is the more advanced and serious form of gum disease.  If gingivitis is left untreated it can develop into periodontal disease.  Inflammation and infection of the gums cause the tissue to pull away from the teeth to form gum pockets.  Bacteria will spread below the gum line into these pockets and cause more tissue damage.  Eventually the infection will cause damage to the bone and tissue that supports the teeth leading to tooth loss.  Waterpik flossing devices have been proven to be effective in treating and controlling periodontitis.  By directing the Waterpik nozzle into the gum line, the gum pockets can be flushed out and cleaned.

2.  Easier to Clean Around Braces.  It can be challenging to clean teeth that have fitted braces.  Failing to remove plaque effectively from around the braces can lead to an increased risk of tooth decay and gum disease.  The Waterpik range of power flossers are available with a specially designed orthodontic cleaning tip that features a thin brush to aid the removal of plaque from around the brackets and wires.

3.  Ideal for Cleaning Implants, Bridges and Crowns.  The areas under and around implants, bridges and crowns are perfect breeding grounds for bacteria.  Great dental hygiene is especially vital for dental implant patients as any form of active gum disease can lead to implant failure and loss.  The combined effect of water pressure and pulsations from a Waterpik is an effective method for ensuring a thorough cleaning around implants.

If you are interested in purchasing a Waterpik Water Flosser, you can pick up a brochure at our office which has a $5 Mail-in Rebate Offer on Select Waterpik Water Flossers.

With the arrival of a new school year, comes the beginning of fall sports for many young athletes from elementary school age up to college level.  To ensure that everyone participating has a safe and healthy season, we would like to emphasize the importance of athletes wearing mouthguards to protect their oral health.

Chipped teeth are the most common of all dental injuries, with dislodged or knocked out teeth being less frequent but more severe examples.  Approximately one-third of all dental injuries are sports-related, so it is vital that athletes wear a mouthguard.

Many dental injuries that occur during sports are often preventable and mouthguards not only help protect the teeth, but lips, tongue, cheeks and jaw as well.

We make custom-fitted mouthguards which require a mold be made of the patient's teeth.  They offer the best protection, fit and comfort.

A properly fitted mouthguard is especially important for people who wear braces or have fixed dental appliances.  A blow to the face could damage the brackets or other fixed orthodontic appliances.  A mouthguard also provides a barrier between the braces and your cheeks and lips, limiting the risk of soft tissue injuries.

Please contact our office if you are interested in having a mouthguard fabricated.  You will need 2 appointments, one for impressions and another one several weeks later for delivery of the mouthguard.

The Waterpik Sidekick Water Flosser is the newest addition to the Waterpik family.  It cleans deep between teeth and below the gumline to remove harmful bacteria and debris that traditional brushing and flossing can't reach.  The Sidekick features a contemporary and compact design that is ideal for limited counter space.  It collapses to easily fit in almost any purse or briefcase for travel-ready water flossing anywhere, anytime.  The Sidekick includes a premium soft-sided storage case and a new, easy-to-hold stylus with integrated classic tip and swivel handle for effortless access to all areas of the mouth.  The unit comes with a 3-year warranty and is accepted by the American Dental Association (ADA).  The Waterpik Sidekick Water Flosser comes in several colors and is available on

If you are interested in purchasing a Waterpik Water Flosser, you can pick up a brochure at our office which has a $5 Mail-in Rebate Offer on Select Waterpik Water Flossers.

It is with heavy hearts that we must inform you that our extraordinary Insurance/Financial Manager, Cookie Baden, is retiring.  Her last day will be September 13, 2018.

Cookie will be greatly missed by staff and patients alike.  We thank her from the bottom of our hearts for her loyal service and superb expertise over the past 12 years.

Thank you, Cookie, for all your hard-working efforts on behalf of our patients to help them navigate the complicated world of dental insurance.

We raise our glasses in a toast to you, Cookie, and wish you every happiness in your well-deserved retirement.  You will be dearly missed! 


We are very pleased to welcome Jill Breedlove to our practice as our new Insurance/Financial Manager.  Jill has over 15 years of experience in the dental insurance field and she is looking forward to helping you with any insurance questions you may have and with planning any needed treatment.

Jill recently moved back to Maryland from Colorado to be closer to her two lovely daughters, their wonderful spouses and a number of grand pets.

In her spare time, Jill enjoys walking, hiking and taking her cat for a walk. Yes, her cat is actually leash trained!  She also likes to try new restaurants as she prefers not to cook.  Please feel free to drop by her office to say "Hi" and to give her restaurant recommendations.

Halloween brings ghosts, goblins and goodies -- and the sugar in those treats can play some unwanted tricks on your teeth if you're not careful.

Here's why:  The bacteria in your mouth are probably more excited to eat Halloween candy than you are.  When the bacteria eat the sugar and leftover food in your mouth, a weak acid is produced.  That acid is what can contribute to cavities.

But don't hang up your costume just yet.  Per ADA dentist Dr. Ana Paula Ferraz-Dougherty, "It's okay to eat that candy on Halloween as a splurge as long as you're brushing twice a day and flossing once a day all year long."

To help you sort through the trick-or-treat bag loot, we have a rundown of some common candies and their impact on your teeth:


Chocolate is probably your best bet, which is good because it's also one of the most popular kinds of candy handed out on Halloween.  "Chocolate is one of the better candies because it washes off your teeth easier than other types of candy," Dr. Ferraz-Dougherty says.  "Dark chocolate also has less sugar than milk chocolate."

Sticky and Gummy Candies

Be picky if it's sticky.  These are some of the worst candies for your teeth.  "This candy is harder to remove and may stay longer on your teeth, which gives that cavity-causing bacteria more time to work," Dr. Ferraz-Dougherty says.

Hard Candy

Hard candies are also ones to watch on Halloween.  "They can actually break your teeth if you're not careful," Dr. Ferraz-Dougherty says.  "You also tend to keep these kinds of candies in your mouth for longer periods of time so the sugar is getting in your saliva and washing over your teeth."

Sour Candy

You might want to pass on things that make you pucker -- especially if they are sticky and coated in sugar.  "Sour candy can be very acidic," says Dr. Ferraz-Dougherty.  "And that acidity can weaken and damage the hard outer shell of your teeth, making your teeth more vulnerable to cavities."

Popcorn Balls

Have some floss handy if you're enjoying one of these fall favorites.  "Kernels can get stuck in-between your teeth," Dr. Ferraz-Dougherty says.  "They are also sticky, sugary and can be hard."



Keep in mind these simple dental tips and enjoy the holidays without compromising your smile or the health of your teeth and gums.

Eat These Teeth-Healthy Foods

Holidays bring with them plenty of opportunities to reunite with friends and family, mix and mingle and, of course, nibble and munch.

Although it's okay to splurge a bit and enjoy some of the treats that won't come around again for another 12 months, be sure to balance that out with crunchy fruits and veggies, whole grains and plenty of refreshing water.  Your teeth will thank you!

Avoid These Dental No-No Foods

Sticky, hard, chewy, gummy or sugary foods may be tempting and tasty, but they are no friends to your teeth and gums.  That includes gummy candies, candy canes, ice cubes and other standard holiday staples.

Stick To Your Daily Oral Health Routine

As much as possible, stick to your daily oral health routine of brushing twice a day and flossing at least once a day.  The Waterpik Water Flosser is an excellent option.

Drink Plenty of Water Daily

Drinking water has so many benefits, especially during the holidays when you are out and about more than ever and want to look and feel your best.  Water can freshen your breath and aid in digestion.  And one of water's best perks is that it can wash away freshly formed bacteria in your mouth to help prevent decay.

 Please Do Not Use Teeth as Tools

Teeth are for chewing, and should not be used as tools.  Over time this kind of activity will weaken tooth enamel and may lead to cracking and breakage of your teeth.

Choose Light-Colored Or Clear Beverages

If you've invested time and money all year long whitening your teeth, the last thing you want is to wake up one morning to pale pinkish teeth.  Although red wine is purportedly full of antioxidants as well as the cranberry juice used in Cosmopolitans, both are potent teeth stainers.  If you stick to clear or light-colored beverages, you will maintain your pearly white smile.

Cheese Is A Great Snack Choice

Alcoholic beverages are notorious for their high acid content which over time can wear away tooth enamel.  Why not try nibbling on some cheese between sips?  In the truly miraculous world of food science, the alkaline property of cheese neutralizes the acid in the alcohol.  Plus they taste great together!

Why Not Go To Parties Prepared?

If you tuck a small container of floss in your pocket or your purse, you will be rescue ready if you end up with spinach dip wedged between your two front teeth.


Dear Patients and Friends,

Thank you for the privilege of serving your dental needs all year long.

We are very grateful for the trust you have placed in us.

At this very special time of year, we want to wish you and your family a wonderful holiday season and a very Happy Healthy New Year!

Best wishes,

Dr. Rhonda Eskinazi, Dr. Monica Tiu Silva & Staff

From Our Family to Yours, we wish you a very
Happy Thanksgiving!





(Tote, 5 different brush heads, Crest Oral Rinse, Crest Toothpaste & Glide Floss)


Bluetooth Communication between your brush & smartphone

New Cross Action Brush Head surrounds each tooth with perfectly angled bristles for a precise clean







ON SALE!  $65 for 10 Pre-Filled Trays while supplies last

(Regular Price: $75)

Opalescence GO is the perfect option for patients who are looking for convenient, ready-to-go whitening.  It is a professional 15% whitening gel delivered in prefilled, disposable trays and features the enhanced UltraFit tray.  Opalescence GO can deliver dramatic results in as little as 15 minutes a day for 5-10 days.  The UltraFit tray sets Opalescence GO apart with its unique material that warms for the temperature of the body so that it comfortably molds and adapts to anyone's smile for an effective and enjoyable whitening experience.  With no impressions, models or lab time required, Opalescence GO is the professional alternative to less-effective over-the counter options.

  Plus it makes a GREAT GIFT!


Fluoride is a mineral that occurs naturally in many foods and water.  Every day minerals are added to and lost from a tooth's enamel layer through two processes: remineralization and demineralization.  Minerals are lost (demineralization) from a tooth's enamel layer when acids -- formed from  plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth -- attack the enamel.  Minerals such as fluoride, calcium and phosphate are redeposited (remineralization) to the enamel layer from the foods and water consumed.  Too much demineralization without enough remineralization to repair the enamel layer leads to tooth decay.

Fluoride helps prevent tooth decay by making the tooth more resistant to acid attacks from plaque bacteria and sugars in the mouth.  It also reverses early decay.  In children under 6 years of age, fluoride becomes incoporated into the development of permanent teeth, making it difficult for acids to demineralize the teeth.  Fluoride also helps speed remineralization as well as disrupts acid production in already erupted teeth of both children and adults.

In What Forms Is Fluoride Available?

As mentioned, fluoride is found in foods and in water.  It can also be directly applied to the teeth through fluoridated toothpastes and mouth rinses.  Mouth rinses containing fluoride in lower strengths are available over-the-counter; stronger concentrations require a doctor's prescription.

Our hygienists and dentists apply fluoride to the teeth as a varnish which is painted on the teeth.  This treatment contains a much higher level of fluoride than the amount found in toothpastes and mouth rinses.

When Is Fluoride Most Critical?

It is certainly important for infants and children between the ages of 6 months and 16 years old to be exposed to fluoride.  This is the timeframe during which the primary and permanent teeth come in.

Adults Benefit From Fluoride Too

Research indicates that topical fluorides -- from toothpastes, mouth rinses and fluoride treatments -- are as important in fighting tooth decay as in strengthening developing teeth.

In addition, people with certain conditions may be at increased risk of tooth decay and would therefore benefit from additional fluoride treatment.  They include people with:

Dry mouth ConditionsAlso called xerostomia, dry mouth caused by diseases such as Sjogren's syndrome, certain medications (such as allergy medications, antihistamines, anti-anxiety drugs and high blood pressure drugs), and head and neck radiation treatment makes someone more prone to tooth decay.  The lack of saliva makes it harder for food particles to be washed away and acids to be neutralized.

Gum Disease: Also called periodontitis, gum disease can expose more of your tooth and tooth roots to bacteria, increasing the chance of tooth decay.  Gingivitis is an early stage of periodontitis.

History of Frequent Cavities:  If you have one cavity every year or every other year, you would probably benefit from additional fluoride.

Presence of Crowns and/or Bridges or Braces:  These treatments can put teeth at risk for decay at the point where the crown meets the underlying tooth structure or around the brackets of orthodontic appliances.

We offer fluoride varnish at your routine cleaning visits for a fee of $25.00.  There are a few dental insurance companies that will even cover that fee.












A handful of dark-colored berries may lower the risk of tooth decay, a new study shows.  Scientists have found that nutrients in cranberries and blueberries can be highly effective in protecting the teeth against a strand of bacteria responsible for accelerating tooth decay.

These natural compounds, known as polyphenols, help fend off harmful bacteria in the mouth.

The study supports previous research by suggesting these are good for oral health by preventing 'bad bacteria' from sticking to the teeth and gums.

This could help reduce tooth decay, plaque and gum disease.

Chief Executive of the Oral Health Foundation, Dr. Nigel Carter OBE (Order of the British Empire), believes polyphenols could eventually lead to new oral care products.

Dr. Carter says, "The nutrients and fiber in fruit are vital for our health and well being.  They help protect us against heart disease and cancer, as well as a range of other diseases.  Cranberries seem especially good for our oral health, as their polyphenols stick around in our saliva and will continue to help our mouth, even after we've swallowed them.  What is especially exciting is that these natural extracts are completely sugar-free.  This means they can be added to oral care products in several ways.  They can dissolve in water so can be used to create healthy drinks, as well as to reformulate unhealthy drinks packed full of sugar.  They also have wider applications for tooth decay prevention and control.  Mouthwash could benefit from this ingredient, as could toothpastes.  More testing must be done but it will be extremely interesting to see whether manufacturers make more use of polyphenols in the future."

Dark-colored berries are among the best dietary source of antioxidants.  They provide a good supply of water and fiber, as well as other nutrients.  However, along with other fruit, they may also contain high amounts of natural sugar.

One portion of cranberries contains up to 4 grams of natural sugar (equivalent to one teaspoon) while a serving of blueberries is nearly ten grams.

Dr. Carter adds, "It is important to remember that whole fruit contains natural sugars.  This means it can still cause a risk to teeth when consumed in high amounts and too often.  It is best to eat fruit at mealtimes or straight after dinner.  This will limit the number of times which our mouth is exposed to sugar and acid."

The best way to protect your children's teeth is to teach them good dental habits.  With proper coaching your children will quickly adopt good oral hygiene as a part of their daily routine.

As soon as your child has a tooth you should start helping your child brush 2 times a day with a smear (size of a grain of rice) of fluoride toothpaste on a child-sized toothbrush that has soft bristles. You'll need to supervise and help them brush to remove all the plaque -- the soft, sticky, bacteria-containing deposits that accumulate on the teeth that cause tooth decay.  Also, keep an eye out for areas of brown or white spots which might be signs of early decay.

At age 3 you can start using a pea-size amount of fluoride toothpaste. Once your children are able to tie their shoes, they should have adequate coordination to brush their teeth as well.  However, because of problems that can arise from unbalanced development of permanent and primary teeth, they may still need help with flossing.

The ADA recommends that children see a dentist by their first birthday and every 6 months thereafter.  At this first visit, the dentist will explain proper brushing and flossing techniques and do an exam while your baby sits on your lap.  These first visits can help find any problems early and help kids get accustomed to visiting the dentist.  At subsequent dental visits your children will see a hygienist who will clean their teeth and apply a fluoride varnish treatment to help protect tooth enamel and prevent decay.

In addition to toothbrushing and regular visits to a dentist, your children's diet plays a key role in dental health.  Keep in mind the longer and more frequently teeth are exposed to sugar, the great the risk of cavities.  Sticky, sugary foods such as caramel, gummy candy and dried fruit -- particularly when it stays in the mouth and bathes teeth in sugar for hours -- can lead to tooth decay.  Also, if your child drinks sodas and/or fruit juices frequently, their teeth are exposed to the acid in these sugary beverages which can also lead to tooth decay.  Drinking water after consuming sugary treats or drinks and limiting the duration it stays in a child's mouth will help prevent dental problems.

Keep in mind that good dental habits start early and explain to your children why it is so important to take good care of their teeth.  After all, we want them to have a healthy smiles for a lifetime!





FINAL ISSUE - Our Newsletter is Going on Hiatus

Due to circumstances beyond our control, after this issue we are no longer able to publish our newsletter.  We hope to be able to bring it back at a later date.  In the meantime, we will notify you of any product sales or specials through e-mail.


Soft and silky- the way floss was meant to be

Flossing is an integral part of any thorough oral care regimen, but not all flosses are created equal.  Radius Natural Biodegradable Silk Floss takes us back to a time before the nylon of today's floss took over -- when floss was made of pure, inviting, luxurious silk.  Free from the toxins found in similar products, Radius Silk Floss glides easily between teeth for a meticulously clean finish.  Plus this silk floss is the only biodegradable and compostable floss on the market today.

Floss with a Cause - Radius pure silk floss thread is spun on small machines at the CORSEDA Fair Trade Co-op in Colombia, South America, which supports more than 80 families.

Soft & Smooth - The silk is spun in candelilla plant wax (derived from candelilla shrubs in the Southwestern US desert), ensuring a smooth glide between teeth for total tooth and gum protection.

Good for the Earth - Radius Floss is 100% biodegradable -- perfect for camping and composting.

No Undesirable Ingredients - Radius Floss is BPA Free.  And you won't find glutens, preservatives, artificial sweeteners, GMOs, unnatural coloring, phthalates, parabens or any other harmful additives in Radius Floss. Ever.

If you would like to give Radius Silk Floss a try, it is sold at Wegman's and at health food stores in our area.

We hope you found this newsletter informative. If you have any questions about any of the material covered in this issue, please don't hesitate to call us at 410-730-2337.

We look forward to seeing you soon!

The entire team at Columbia 100 Dental
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